Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics

Living Edition
| Editors: Laurence R. Young, Jeffrey P. Sutton

Bioethics in Space Exploration

  • Charles Sawin
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_136-2

Introduction

The Mercury and Gemini programs were conducted with the primary objective of establishing capabilities required by the Apollo program in order to land man on the Moon. The Mercury program (1961–1963) included seven “experiments,” which were basically limited physiological monitoring that required crew participation. Gemini (1964–1966) included 27 experiments with 20 human subjects conducted over ten spaceflight missions. These limited studies analyzed chromosomal changes, effects on blood volume, cardiopulmonary changes, and bone demineralization. Further studies analyzed visual acuity, assayed body fluids, and determined exercise tolerance. Participation in these studies was not voluntary; it was required as part of mission assignments. The Apollo program (1968–1972) included approximately 123 biomedical evaluations on the 33 human subjects (ten missions), involving 30 investigators. Radiation was assessed in some detail, while other studies were conducted to determine...

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References

  1. Department of Health and Human Services (1974) Code of federal regulations—title 45 (part 46) protection of human subjectsGoogle Scholar
  2. Institute of Medicine (2001) Safe passage, astronaut care for exploration missions. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects Guidelines for Investigators Proposing Human Research for Space Flight and Related Investigations (2004) JSC 20483, Revision CGoogle Scholar
  4. Levine RJ (1986) Ethics and regulation of clinical research. Yale University Press, New Haven/LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine (2015) On being a scientist. A guide to responsible conduct in research. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Johnson Space CenterRound RockUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael W. Bungo
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Texas Health Science CenterHoustonUSA