Advertisement

Psychometric properties of the Chinese Metaparenting Profile Questionnaire Short-form

  • Wai-lap Lance WongEmail author
  • Chi Ming Kam
Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Research on deliberate and mindful parenting constructs, including metaparenting, has become increasingly popular. However, this topic has not been widely examined in China and Hong Kong. To provide a psychometrically-sound instrument for such research endeavor in the region, this study adopted the Metaparenting Profile Questionnaire Short-form (MPPQ-S) by Holden (2008) and examined the psychometric properties of its Chinese version including its factor structure, internal reliability and concurrent validity. Participants were 293 Chinese mothers in Hong Kong with a focal child in elementary school. They were invited to complete a set of questionnaires measuring their metaparenting thoughts, parental sense of competence and satisfaction, and parenting practices. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the proposed five-factor structure of the Chinese MPPQ-S had an acceptable fit. The questionnaire also demonstrated adequate internal reliability, and was associated with parental competence and satisfaction as well as self-reported parenting practices which supported its concurrent validity. The overall results suggest that the Chinese MPPQ-S is a satisfactory measure of metaparenting thoughts in the Chinese context.

Keywords

Metaparenting Parental cognitions Parenting Validation study Hong Kong/China Mindful parenting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Calvin Hui for his efforts in back translation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12144_2019_335_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blechman, E. A., & McEnroe, M. J. (1985). Effective family problem solving. Child Development, 56, 429–437.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1129731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., & Suwalsky, J. T. D. (2018). Parenting cognitions ➔ parenting practices ➔ child adjustment? The standard model. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 399–146.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579417000931
  4. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equations models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Bugental, D. B., & Happaney, K. (2002). Parental attributions. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 509–535). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Bugental D. B., & Johnston, C. (2000). Parental and child cognitions in the context of the family. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 315–344.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.315
  7. Chan, S. M., Bowes, J., & Wyver, S. (2009). Chinese parenting in Hong Kong: Links among goals, beliefs and styles. Early Child Development and Care, 179, 849–862.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430701536525.
  8. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Dix, T., & Branca, S. H. (2003). Parenting as a goal-regulation process. A cognitive mechanism for change. In L. Kucznyski (Ed.), Handbook of dynamic in parent-child relationships (pp. 167–187). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Parenting as a Goal-Regulation Process.Google Scholar
  10. Dumas, J. E. (2005). Mindfulness-based parent training: Strategies to lessen the grip of automaticity in families with disruptive children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 779–791.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3404_20
  11. Dunning, M. J., & Giallo, R. (2012). Fatigue, parenting stress, self-efficacy and satisfaction in mothers of infants and young children. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 30, 145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2012.693910
  12. Eaton, W. O., & Enns, L. R. (1986). Sex differences in human motor activity level. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.100.1.19.
  13. Giallo, R., Wood, C. E., Jellett, R., & Porter, R. (2011). Fatigue, wellbeineg and parental self-efficacy in mothers of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism, 17, 465–480.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361311416830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Han, Y. M. (2010a). Culturally responsive construct of meta-parenting: Validation of Korean Meta-parenting Questionnaire. The Korean Journal of Community Living Science, 21, 499–507.Google Scholar
  15. Han, Y. M. (2010b). A study on meta-parenting of mothers with preschool children. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 19, 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hansen, D. J., Pallotta, G. M., Christopher, J. S., Conaway, R. L., & Lundquist, L. M. (1995). The parental problem-solving measure: Further evaluation with maltreating and nonmaltreating parents. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 319–336.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02110996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hastings, P. D., & Grusec, J. E. (1998). Parenting goals as organizers of responses to parent-child disagreement. Developmental Psychology, 34, 465–479.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hawk, C. K., & Holden, G. W. (2006). Meta-parenting: An initial investigation into a new parental social cognition construct. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 21–42.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327922par0604_3.
  19. Hoff-Ginsberg, E., & Tardif, T. (1995). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 2. Biology and ecology of parenting (1st ed., pp. 161–188). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Holden, G. W. (2008). Meta-parenting profile questionnaire short form. Unpublished manuscript. Southern Methodist University, Texas, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Holden, G. W., & Buck, M. J. (2002). Parental attitudes toward childrearing. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 537–562). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Holden, G. W., & Hawk, C. K. (2003). Meta-parenting in the journey of child-rearing: A cognitive mechanism for change. In L. Kuczynski (Ed.), Handbook of dynamics in parent-child relationships (pp. 189–210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Holden, G. W., Hawk, C. K., Smith, M. M., Singh, J. P., & Ashraf, R. (2017). Disciplinary practices, metaparenting, and the quality of parent-child relationships in African-American, Mexican-American, and European-American mothers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 482–490.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025416687414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), –55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
  25. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 167–175.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1802_8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Julaieha, S., Zare, H., & Mousavi, S. (2017). Evaluation of psychometric properties of the meta-parenting questionnaire. Pajouhan Scientific Journal, 16, 42–48.Google Scholar
  27. Kuhn, J. C., & Carter, A. S. (2006). Maternal self-efficacy and associated parenting cognitions among mothers of children with autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 564–575.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leung, S. A. (2016). Meta-parenting and parent-child interaction in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  29. Lubke, G. H., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Applying multigroup confirmatory factor models for continuous outcomes to Likert scale data complicates meaningful group comparison. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11, 514–534.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1104_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Merrifield, K. A., Gamble, W. C., & Yu, J. J. (2015). Using social cognitive theory to understand meta-parenting in parents of young children. Family Science.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19424620.2015.1076495.
  31. Moreira, H., Gouveia, M. J., & Canavarro, M. C. (2018). Is mindful parenting associated with adolescents’ well-being in early and middle/late adolescence? The mediating role of adolescents’ attachment representations, self-compassion and mindfulness. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0808-7.
  32. Nicholson, J. S., Howard, K. S., & Borkowski, J. G. (2008). Mental models for parenting: Correlates of metaparenting among fathers of young children. Fathering, 6, 39–61.  https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0601.39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291–310.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.2.291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reitman, D., Rhode, P. C., Hupp, S. D. A., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the parental authority questionnaire-revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 119–127.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015344909518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rhoades, K. A., & O’Leary, S. G. (2007). Factor structure and validity of the parenting scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 137–146.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701274157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36.  https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i02.
  37. Sayal, K., Taylor, E., & Beecham, J. (2003). Parental perception of problems and mental health service use for hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1410–1414.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200312000-00007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sigel, I. E., & McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V. (2002). Parent beliefs are cognitions: The dynamic belief systems model. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 485–508). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  39. Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tamm, L., Holden, G. W., Nakonezny, P. A., Swart, S., & Hughes, C. W. (2012). Metaparenting: Associations with parenting stress, child-rearing practices, and retention in parents of children at risk for ADHD. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 4, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-011-0068-9
  41. Wahler, R. G. (2002). How do parents do it? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11, 253–254.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016861004823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang, Q., Chan, H., & Lin, L. (2012). Antecedents of Chinese parents’ autonomy support and psychological control: The interplay between parents’ self-development socialization goals and adolescents’ school performance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1442–1454.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9760-0.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychologythe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong

Personalised recommendations