The school environment encompasses institutional and structural features (e.g., size, space, structural organization, availability of resources), social relations (e.g., teacher-student relationships, relations between students), teaching and learning (e.g., quality of instruction), physical and social-emotional safety, as well as shared beliefs, values, and attitudes (that are often referred to as school culture or school climate).
The school is an important microsystem that affects the personality development of students, in general, and their development of academic skills in particular. Students spend more time at school than at any other place outside their homes. For example, adolescents from Europe and the USA spend about 37% of their waking hours at school (Alsaker and Flammer 1999). While scholars agree upon the important role that the school environment plays in student development, they differ...
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