Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Gender of Friend

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1600-1



The evolutionary origins of why and how friendship differs as a function of the biological sex of friends.


Friendship is a relationship between two people based on mutual liking in which partners provide support to one another in times of need. Because it does not require a familial or formal tie, friendship is typically regarded a nonobligatory relationship of choice. Although individuals often choose to enter into and remain in a friendship, friends are expected to have genuine positive regard and concern and provide emotional and instrumental support to each other (Hall 2012; La Gaipa 1977). Characteristics of friendship are very similar across cultures (Hruschka 2010; Terrell 2015). One of the unique qualities of friendship is that it does not follow tit-for-tat exchange. Rather, friends provide aid and support to one another based on need. This challenges...

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of KansasLawrenceUSA