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Bands and Bandgaps in Solids

  • Karl W. Böer
  • Udo W. PohlEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

Valence and conduction bands and the bandgap in between these bands determine the electronic properties of solids. For semiconductors, the band structure of the conduction band and the valence bands near the edge to the fundamental bandgap is of particular interest. Both the band structure and bandgap are influenced by external parameters such as temperature and pressure and can also be changed by alloying and heavy doping.

In low-dimensional semiconductors like superlattices and quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots anisotropic carrier confinement occurs. The effective gap and energies in conduction and valence bands can be varied by changing spatial dimensions and barrier height of the low-dimensional structure. The bands in amorphous semiconductors near the band edge are ill-defined since long-range periodicity is missing. Still the density-of-state distribution shows significant similarities to that of the same material in the crystallite state.

Keywords

Bandgap energy Bowing Conduction bands Confined states Cyclotron resonance Density of states dimensionality Effective mass Hole effective mass HOMO LUMO Luttinger parameters Quantum dots Quantum wells Quantum wires Valence bands 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NaplesUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Festkörperphysik, EW5-1Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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