Autophagy pp 491-510 | Cite as

Autophagy in 3D In Vitro and Ex Vivo Cancer Models

  • Carlo FolloEmail author
  • Dario Barbone
  • William G. Richards
  • Raphael Bueno
  • V. Courtney Broaddus
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1880)


Three-dimensional (3D) models are acquiring importance in cancer research due to their ability to mimic multiple features of the tumor microenvironment more accurately than standard monolayer two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several groups, including our laboratory, are now accumulating evidence that autophagy in solid tumors is also better represented in 3D than in 2D. Here we detail how we generate 3D models, both in vitro multicellular spheroids generated from cell lines and ex vivo tumor fragment spheroids generated from tumor samples, and how autophagy can be measured in 3D cultures.

Key words

ATG13 Autophagy initiation Autophagic flux Three-dimensional Ex vivo Mesothelioma Spheroids 



This work was supported by the Simmons Mesothelioma Foundation; CF was supported also by the Meso Foundation under grant 383573.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Follo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dario Barbone
    • 1
  • William G. Richards
    • 2
  • Raphael Bueno
    • 2
  • V. Courtney Broaddus
    • 1
  1. 1.Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma CenterUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Thoracic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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