Advertisement

The Limits of Pedagogical Revolution

Female Schooling and Women’s Roles in Egyptian Educational Discourse, 1922–52
  • Barak A. Salmoni

Abstract

In the fall of 1918, a small number of Egyptian lawyers, intellectuals, and scions of landed gentry formed a delegation, or wafd, to discuss with the British high commissioner in Egypt the possibility of native Egyptian attendance at the post-World War I Versailles Conference. Though the wafd envisioned ultimate Egyptian independence, more modest immediate goals involved ending the protectorate imposed during the war and rearranging relations with the British. Rather than accede, the high commissioner rejected the wafd’s request out of hand, and denied the legitimacy of the delegation members. The latter then proceeded to tour Egypt, acquiring support for what appeared to the British as a dangerous manifestation of mob activism. Wafd leaders were then exiled, provoking mass protest, which in turn elicited British repression, committees of inquiry, and the eventual granting of limited independence to a newly sovereign Kingdom of Egypt in 1922. For Egyptian nationalist intellectuals who lived through the strikes, marches, arrests, and Anglo-Egyptian negotiations, these events became known as the 1919 Revolution. In their eyes, Egypt was experiencing—through the efforts of its own people-a true revolution whereby the country was shaking off the lethargy of the Ottoman past in order to reclaim her ancient Pharaonic greatness. The 1922 discovery of the tomb of Tut Ankh Amon symbolically reinforced this conviction.

Keywords

Female Teacher Girl School Female Education Education Minister Egyptian Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ‘Abd al-Rahman, ‘A’isha. 1941a. “Talim al-Banat fi Misr 2.” al-Thaqafa 3, 151, 17/11/41.Google Scholar
  2. —. 1941b. “Fi Ta‘lim al-Banat.” al-Thaqafa 3:156.Google Scholar
  3. —. 1941c. “Ta‘lim al-Banat fi Misr 1.” al-Thaqafa 3:150.Google Scholar
  4. Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1998. “The Marriage of Feminism and Islamism in Egypt: Selective Repudiation of a Dynamic of Postcolonial Cultural Politics.” In Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East. Abu-Lughod, ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed, Leila. 1999. A Border Passage: From Cairo to America-A Woman’s Journey. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  6. ‘Ali, Astirah. 1934. “Aydan. …” Sahifat al-Ta‘lim al-Ilzami 7 (March).Google Scholar
  7. ‘Ali, Sa‘id Isma‘il. 1974. Qadaya al-Ta‘lim fi ‘Ahd al-Ihtilal. Cairo: ‘Alam al-Kutub.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1993. Nazarat fi al-Fikr at-Tarbawi. Cairo: Dar Sa‘d al-Sabah.Google Scholar
  9. Amin, Ahmad. 1934. “al-Furuq al-‘Aqliya Bayna al-Rajul wa-l-Mar’a.” al-Hilal vol. 43, no. 1 (November).Google Scholar
  10. Arat, Yesim. 1997. “The Project of Modernity and Women in Turkey.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. Sibel Bozdogan and Resat Kasaba, eds. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  11. al-‘Ashmawi, Muhammad. 1943. “Misr fi ‘Amm 2000, Hayatuna al Ijitma‘iya: Tanabbu’at Muhammad al-‘Ashmawi.” al-Hilal vol. 51, no. 4 (October).Google Scholar
  12. al-‘Awamiri, Ahmad, Ahmad ‘Ali ‘Abbas, ‘Awad Lutfi Ahmad, ‘Abbas Hasan. 1946. al-Mutala‘a al-Mukhtara li-l-Madaris al-Ibtida’iya, Juz’ III, Sana III. Cairo: al-Matbaa al-Amiriya.Google Scholar
  13. Badran, Margot. 1995. Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bahnsawi, al-Sayyid. 1934. “Ta’thir al-Mar’a.” Sahifat al-Ta‘lim al-Ilzami vol. 8.Google Scholar
  15. Barakat, Muhammad Baha al-Din. 1937. “Hal Addat Wizarat al-Ma‘arif Risalataha?” al-Hilal vol. 45, no. 6 (April).Google Scholar
  16. Baron, Beth. 1994. The Women’s Awakening in Egypt. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bayhum, Muhammad Jamil. 1923. “al-Mar’a wa-l-Funun al-Jamila.” al-Hilal vol. 32, no. 1–2 (October–November).Google Scholar
  18. Beinin, Joel. 1998. “Egypt: Society and Economy, 1923–1952.” In The Cambridge History of Egypt. M. W. Daly, ed. vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Botman, Selma. 1998. “The Liberal Age, 1923–1952.” In The Cambridge History of Egypt.Google Scholar
  20. Buqtur, Amir. 1935. “Zawaj al-Mu‘allimat: Hal Yajuz Istimrar al-Mu‘allima fi Wazifatiha Ba‘d al-Zawaj?” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha vol. 9, no. 2 (December).Google Scholar
  21. —. 1937a. “Madrasa Misriya Raqiya li-l-Banat.” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha 10:3 (February)Google Scholar
  22. —. 1937b. “al-Ta‘lim al-Mushtarak Bayna al-Jinsayn.” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha vol. 10, no. 4 (April).Google Scholar
  23. —. 1930. “Khalaya al-Nahl fi-l-Madaris al-Misriya.” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha vol. 3, no. 4 (May).Google Scholar
  24. Charrad, Mounira. 2001. States and Women’s Rights: The Making of Post-Colonial Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dayf, ‘Abd al-Salam, Shawqi, Fikr Ismail Mahmud al-Qabbani wa-Athrihi ‘ala Tatawwur atl-Tarbiya wa-l-Ta‘lim fi Jumhuriyat Misr al-‘Arabiya. MA Thesis: College of Education, University of Manuqiya, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. de Castell, Suzanne, Allan Luke, and Carmen Luke. 1989. “Beyond Criticism: The Authority of the School Textbook.” In Language, Authority and Criticism: Readings on the School Textbook. de Castell, Luke, and Luke, eds. New York: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  27. al-Din, Ibrahim Numayr Sayf, Zaki ‘Ali, Ahmad Nagib Hashim. 1939. Misr fi al-‘Usurr al-Qadima. Cairo: Matba‘at al-Ma‘arifGoogle Scholar
  28. Elboim-Dror, Rachel. 2001. “Israeli Education: Changing Perspectives.” Israel Studies vol. 6, no. 1.Google Scholar
  29. Ewing, E. Thomas. 2005. “Gender Equity as a Revolutionary Strategy: Coeducation in Russian and Soviet Schools.” Revolution and Pedagogy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fahmi, Asma’. 1947. “al-Taliba al-Misriya Bayna al-Madrasa wa-l-Mujtama‘.” al-Hilal vol. 55, no. 11 (November).Google Scholar
  31. Fitri, Muhammad. 1934. “al-Hijab.” Sahifat al-Ta‘lim al-Ilzami vol. 1, no. 6.Google Scholar
  32. Gershoni, Israel and James Jankowski. 1986. Egypt, Islam and the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood, 1900–1930. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hakim, Abadir. 1922. al-Tarbiya al-Akhlaqiya. Cairo: Matba‘at al-Yaqza.Google Scholar
  34. Hashim, Labiba. 1911. Kitab al-Tarbiya. Cairo: Fatat al-Sharq.Google Scholar
  35. Hasiba, Zaynab Muhammad. 1934. “al-Mar’a allati Tuhizz al-Mahd bi-Yaminiha Tuhizz al-‘Alam Bi-Yasariha.” Sahifat al-Ta‘lim al-Ilzami vol. 1, no. 7.Google Scholar
  36. Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. 1924. “Ba’d Qasim Amin.” al-Hilal vol. 43, no. 1 (November).Google Scholar
  37. al-Hilal. 1924. “Inqilab fi Ta‘lim.” 32:8 (May).Google Scholar
  38. al-Husri, Sati‘. 1949. Hawliyat al-Thaqafa al-‘Arabiya L Cairo: Arab League; Matba‘at Lajnat al-Ta’lif wa-l-Tarjama wa-l-Nashr.Google Scholar
  39. —. 1954. Hawliyat al-Thaqafa al-‘Arabiya III. Cairo: Arab League; Matba‘at Lajnat al-Ta’lif wa-l-Tarjama wa-l-Nashr.Google Scholar
  40. Idgar, G., M. Shafiq Ghurbal. 1931. Kitab al-Ta’rikh al-Qadim, li-Talimidh al-Sana al-Ula al-Thanawiya. Cairo: Matba‘at al-Ma‘arif.Google Scholar
  41. Judge, Joan. 2001. “Talent, Virtue, and Nation: Chinese Nationalisms and Female Subjectivities in the Early Twentieth Century.” The American Historical Review vol. 106, no. 3.Google Scholar
  42. Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh. 1999. Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804–1946. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  43. Keddie, Nikki R. 2002. “Women in the Limelight: Some Recent Books on Middle Eastern Women’s History.” International Journal of Middle East Studies. vol. 34, no. 3.Google Scholar
  44. Khalifa, Husayn Muhammad. 1934. “al-Nahda al-Nisa’iya.” Sahifat al-Ta’lim al-Ilzami vol. 8 (April).Google Scholar
  45. Khaluf, Mikha’il. 1925. “Ghara’ib al-Ta‘lim fi al-Madaris al-Bulshafiya.” al-Hilal vol. 33, no. 9.Google Scholar
  46. Mahir, ‘Ali. 1930. “Nahdat al-Mar’a wa Ta‘limuha: al-Fatat al-Misriya fi-l-Madaris al-Ulya.” al-Hilal vol. 38, no. 9 (July).Google Scholar
  47. al-Makhzanji, Muhammad Husayn. 1941. “Hawl Tarbiyat al-Banat: al-Tarbiya li-l-Umuma.” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha vol. 14, no. 4.Google Scholar
  48. al-Manar. 1909. “Bahth fi Khutbat al-‘Aqila al-Misriya ‘Bahitha bi-l-Badiya.’ ” al-Manar vol. 12, no. 6 (1327).Google Scholar
  49. al-Manar. 1908. “Muqaddimat Mutarjim Kitab Tarbiya al-Istiqlaliya Ba‘d al-Basmala.” al-Manar vol. 11, no. 6 (1326).Google Scholar
  50. Marshall, Byron K. 1994. Learning to Be Modern: Japanese Political Discourse on Education Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  51. Nabarawi, Sa’iza. 1927. “L’enseignement secondaire féminin en Egypte.” L’Egyptienne [al-Misriya] (November).Google Scholar
  52. —. 1930. “Deux interviews avec le Ministre de l’Instruction Publique.” L’Egyptienne (July).Google Scholar
  53. Olson, David R. 1980. “On the Language and Authority of School Textbooks.” Journal of Communications vol. 30, no. 1.Google Scholar
  54. al-Qabbani, Ismail Mahmud. 1944. Siyasat al-Ta‘lim fi Misr. Cairo: Matba‘at Lajnat al-Ta’lif wa-l-Tarjama wa-l-Nashr.Google Scholar
  55. —. 1951. Dirasat fi Masa’il al-Ta‘lim. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misriya.Google Scholar
  56. Qasim, Muhammad Fathi. 1933. “al-Mar’a Bayna al-Sufur wa-l-Hijab.” Sahifat al Ta‘lim al-Ilzami vol. 1, no. 4.Google Scholar
  57. Rosefsky-Wickham, Carrie. 2002. Mobilizing Islam. Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  58. al-Sa‘dawi, Nawal. 1999. Daughter of Isis: The Autobiography of Nawal el-Saadawi. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  59. Salmoni, Barak. 2002. “Pedagogies of Patriotism: Teaching Socio-Political Community in Twentieth-Century Turkish and Egyptian Education.” Ph.D. diss, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  60. al-Sayyid, Ahmad Lutfi. 1912/1945. “al-Tarbiya wa 1 Ta‘lim.” al-Jarida 1684 (24/9/12), in Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Muntakhabat II. Cairo: Matbaat al-Muqtataf.Google Scholar
  61. —. 1912/1937a. “Ila al-Shabiba 5: Wasa’il al-Istiqlal.” al-Jarida 1669 (4/9/12), in Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Muntakhabat I. Cairo: Dar al-Nashr al-Hadith.Google Scholar
  62. —. 1912/1937b. “Ila al-Shabiba 6: Wasa’il al-Istiqlal, al-Tarbiya wa 1 Ta‘lim.” al-Jarida 1670 (5/9/12), in Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Muntakhabat I.Google Scholar
  63. —. 1909/1937a. “Banatuna.” al-Jarida 610 (14/3/09), in Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Muntakhabat I.Google Scholar
  64. —. 1909/1937b. “Salah al-‘A’ila Salah al-Umma.” al-Jarida 630 (6/4/09), in Lutfi al-Sayyid, al-Muntakhabat I.Google Scholar
  65. —. 1950. “al-Walidun wa-l-Awlad.” al-Hilal 58:6 (June).Google Scholar
  66. al-Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi. 1977. Egypt’s Liberal Experiment, 1922–1936. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  67. Shawqi, Mahmud. 1952. “Huquq al-Mar’a wa Wajibatuha.” al-Mu’allim al-Awwal vol. 8 (April).Google Scholar
  68. Smith, Anthony D. 1990. National Identity London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  69. al-Tarbiya al-Haditha. 1936. “Hal Taqud Rusiya al-Sufiyatiya al-‘Alam fi al-Tarbiya wa-l-Ta‘lim?” Majallat al-Tarbiya al-Haditha vol. 10, no. 2 (December).Google Scholar
  70. Thabit, Munira. 1925. “Nahdat al-Mar’a al-Misriya: Hadith Ma‘a al-Anisa Munira Thabit.” al-Hilal vol. 34, no. 1 (October).Google Scholar
  71. Thompson, Elizabeth. 2000. Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Van Vleck, M. Richard. 1990. “British Educational Policy in Egypt Relative to British Imperialism in Egypt, 1882–1922.” Ph.D. diss, University of Wisconson, Madison.Google Scholar
  73. Wizarat al-Ma‘arif. 1926. Taqrir Yubayyin Hal al-Ta‘lim Alladhi Tatawwaluhu Wizarat al-Ma‘arif aw Tushrif ‘Alayhi fi Akhr December 1923. Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Amiriya.Google Scholar
  74. al-Zahawi, Jamil Sidqi. 1924. “al-Mar’a al-Sharqiya.” al-Hilal vol. 33, no. 1 (October).Google Scholar
  75. Zaki, Ahmad. 1948. “Nasha’tu fi al-Thawra … Taliban wa Mudarrisan!” al-Hilal vol. 56, no. 10 ( October).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© E. Thomas Ewing 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barak A. Salmoni

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations