Characterization and Variable Temperature Modeling of SiC MOSFET
Silicon power semiconductor device is difficult to meet the requirements of high temperature, high pressure and high frequency. Among them, the MOSFET which has the fast switch speed and the simple driving circuit, become the most popular object in SiC power electronic devices. In this paper, we choose the C2M0160120D chip of CREE company, establishing a complete model. And the static characteristics of SiC MOSFET under different temperature points are simulated. The switching characteristics of SiC MOSFET under different driving resistances are analyzed and compared with the experimental results, and the accuracy of the model is verified in this paper.
KeywordsSiC MOSFET Simulation model Pspice Characteristic analysis
Si and GaAs, as the representative of the traditional semiconductor devices, can only work under 200 °C, and they can’t meet the new requirements of the development of modern electronic technology . Since 1990s, with the outstanding performance advantages of band gap, breakdown field strength, thermal conductivity and saturation electron drift rate, the third generation wide band gap semiconductor material, represented by SiC and GaN, have become the research focus. At present, SiC MOSFETs have a very good application in the civil power substation and transmission field, the aerospace field, and the new energy field, such as PV inverter, hybrid/electric vehicles, rail vehicles, wind power .
With the wide use of SiC MOSFET, it is very important to use a model of the device to evaluate performance. Therefore, obtaining a precise and concise model is the key to simulate exactly of the device characteristics. The MOSFET device model can be divided into physical model and equivalent circuit model . According to the structure diagram of the SiC MOSFET, the circuit schematic diagram and the physical equations of the model, a SiC MOSFET model based on the physical level was established in Ref. . However, this method has a large amount of calculation. It is suitable for the research at the physical level and the analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of the device, but industrial applications. Taking SiC MOSFET CMF20120D chip of CREE company as an example, a variable temperature parameter PSpice model was built in Ref. . The model was tested under different voltage, current and temperature conditions. It was turned out that the model was accurate and had a high reference value [6, 7, 8]. But the way, modeling of temperature controlled voltage source, is very complex and easy to make mistakes. In this paper, we use ABM (Analog Behavioral Modeling) simulation behavior model to improve the modeling method. Gate-drain capacitance CGD is an important factor to affect the switching characteristic of SiC MOSFET, and the method in Ref.  has a poor accuracy. In this paper, based on the establishment of the SiC MOSFET model of MOS3, we make a thorough inquiry of modeling CGD.
2 Variable Temperature Modeling of SiC MOSFET
2.1 Temperature Compensation Modeling of on-State Resistance
Place the temperature compensation resistor in the circuit, and test the Rds(on) of SiC MOSFET with the condition of UGS = 20 V,ID = 10A.
2.2 Modeling of Temperature Control Voltage Source
In this paper, ABM (Analog Behavioral Modeling) is used to model the temperature control voltage source. ABM is an extension of the controlled source. It calls mathematical formulas or look-up tables to describe the device, without the need to design specific circuit .
2.3 Modeling of Gate-Source Capacitance
The capacitance between several poles affect the switching characteristics of SiC MOSFET. It is almost independent of temperature, but sensitive to voltage parameters. So, in this paper, temperature factors will not be considered, and mainly discuss the modeling of CGD which has a significant influence on the switching characteristics of the device. Two modeling methods of CGD will be explored in this paper.
2.3.1 Sub Circuit Modeling Method
When the device is in off-state, UGD < 0, DGD1 and DGD2, in series, are used to describe the changes in CGD. When the device is in the on-state, UGD > 0, fixed capacitance CGDMAX = CGD. In this way, the sub circuit can accurately describe the nonlinear variable capacitance CGD.
The waveform of the capacitance with voltage is shown in Fig. 3b. In the simulation process, the running speed is slow and the simulation curve is not easy to converge, which is prone to error. The capacitance value increases with the UGD value, which is far from the actual one. Diode parameters can only be set by trial and error, which has poor accuracy.
2.3.2 Descriptive Statement Modeling Method
According to the fitting formula and using statement modeling method of Model Editor, we can build CGD sub circuit module.
As is shown,when UGD < 0, the capacitance value decreases with the increase of voltage. When UGD > 0, the capacitance value keeps constant. Therefore, this model can accurately simulate the nonlinear capacitance CGD in SiC MOSFET.
The above two models respectively use diode and voltage control current source to complete the modeling of CGD. There is a great deal of uncertainty in parameter setting by using diode modeling. So we select the second method by using VCCS to the modeling in this paper.
3 Characteristics Verification
3.1 Static Characteristics Verification
3.2 Dynamic Characteristics Verification
The test circuit uses a double pulse gate drive mode. The drive voltage is −5/19 V. The drain-source voltage is 600 V. The load inductance is 5 Ω, 10 Ω, 20 Ω, 30 Ω. Observe the on-state and off-state simulation waveform of SiC MOSFET on different drive resistances, and compare to the experimental result.
Due to the fast switching speed of the SiC MOSFET, it requires wider band gap of current and voltage probes. We use the 100 MHz bandwidth voltage probe and 120 MHz current probe in this paper.
- (1)The driving resistance is set to 5 Ω. The moment the device turn on (Fig. 8)
Above the pictures, the prior is simulation waveform. The latter is the experimental waveform. The blue line represents the change in drain-source voltage with time, and the red line represents the change in drain current with time.
From the simulation and experimentation results can be seen, the model built in this paper can fit the waveforms of current and voltage in the turn-on and turn-off time of SiC MOSFET C2M0160120D.
This paper focuses on the establishment of the simulation model based on SiC MOSFET C2M0160120D in Pspice. When modeling temperature-controlled voltage sources, we use the ABM module to simplify the modeling process. On the basis of the previous modeling methods, the model is further improved in this paper. Test the static characteristics of the model at different temperatures, the simulation results are in good agreement with the data provided in datasheet. Two models respectively use diode and voltage control current source to complete the modeling of CGD. After the comparison, we select the second method by using VCCS to the modeling in this paper. Build the test circuit by the dynamic model and test switching characteristics under different driving resistance. Compare the simulation result with experiment. It verifies the correctness of the dynamic model.
This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. E16JB00160/2016JBM062/2016JBM058) and The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB1200504-C-02).
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