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Microbial Remediation of Persistent Agro-chemicals by Soil Bacteria: An Overview

  • Suraja Kumar Nayak
  • Byomkesh Dash
  • Bighneswar Baliyarsingh
Chapter

Abstract

Occupational and environmental exposure to agrochemicals, more commonly to pesticides, result in serious health hazards. While less than 1% of applied agro-chemicals are effective against pests, most of the synthetic compounds persist in soil or leach to groundwater and thereby contaminating wider habitats. The impact of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of agro-POPs in mammals or humans are overwhelming. Biological methods employed for decontamination have proved to be effective than the conventional and expensive physicochemical methods. Individual bacteria or consortia of soil microbes, either indigenous or genetically modified, carry out microbial remediation through variety of biochemical pathways. Most of the instances these biochemical pathways are coupled with their inherent metabolic pathways of growth and development. The key tools in the degradation process are the enzymes, acted extra-cellularly (breakdown of polymeric structure) or intra-cellularly (mineralization). Most commonly used microbes or their enzymes include species from Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Acetobacter and Bacillus genera. Exploring and exploiting the microbial and genetic resource may reduce the threat of non-degradation of xenobiotic pollutants. This chapter will give an account on bacteria involved in degradation of different groups of persistent agrochemicals and discuss biotechnological methods helpful in improving agro-chemical degradation.

Keywords

Agro-chemicals POPs Biodegradation Soil bacteria Enzymes Cell immobilization 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suraja Kumar Nayak
    • 1
  • Byomkesh Dash
    • 1
  • Bighneswar Baliyarsingh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyCollege of Engineering and Technology (BPUT)BhubaneswarIndia

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