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Preeclampsia pp 141-155 | Cite as

Animal Models in Preeclampsia

  • Keiichi KumasawaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Comprehensive Gynecology and Obstetrics book series (CGO)

Abstract

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and excessive proteinuria after 20 weeks’ gestation. It is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is almost exclusive to humans and termination of the pregnancy continues to be the only effective and fundamental treatment. The disorder is considered to be multifactorial, although most cases of preeclampsia are characterized by abnormal maternal uterine vascular remodeling by fetally derived placental trophoblast cells. In spite of many previous researches, mechanism of preeclampsia is not clearly and sufficiently elucidated. Recently “two-stage theory” is widely adopted as a pathology of preeclampsia. The first stage involves abnormal placentation characterized by poor trophoblast invasion, incomplete vascular remodeling of spiral arteries, and placental hypoxia. The second stage is manifested as the maternal syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria with systemic endothelial dysfunction. Each step is associated with various factors, and numerous animal models have been used to study those various aspects of preeclampsia. For first stage, many models were reported from the points of immune responses, abnormal trophoblast invasion, placental oxygen dysregulation, and inappropriate maternal vascular damage. For second stage, antiangiogenesis factors, such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and soluble endoglin (sENG), were adopted for exploit of model mice. However, preeclampsia is almost exclusive to humans mainly because of morphology of placenta; the same pathology in human preeclampsia is difficult to mimic in model animals. Therefore, various types of animal models are required. Investigations into the pathophysiology and treatment of preeclampsia will need to continue, albeit at a frustratingly slow pace. There remains a pressing need for novel approaches for pathology and therapy; new models will be needed for this complex and devastating disorder.

Keywords

Model animal Immune response Trophoblast invasion Anti-angiogenesis 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan

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