A Model for Diverse Learning Environments

The Scholarship on Creating and Assessing Conditions for Student Success
Part of the Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research book series (HATR, volume 27)


Drawing from converging areas of scholarship in higher education on the diversity dynamics of an institution and its surrounding contexts, this chapter explores how different aspects of the institution—all of which are influenced by and contribute to the campus climate for diversity—play important roles in achieving student outcomes that also enhance social transformation for a just society. The authors present a model to guide research and practice in creating the conditions for student success in diverse learning environments.


Campus climate Diversity Educational outcomes Multiple institutional contexts Diverse learning environments Campus climate assessment Conceptual models in higher education Habits of mind Skills for lifelong learning Multicultural competencies Retention Achievement Higher education and society Multi-contextual models 


  1. AACC. (2011). Fact sheet. Accessed 14 June 2011.Google Scholar
  2. Abes, E. S., Jones, S. R., & McEwen, M. K. (2007). Reconceptualizing the model of multiple dimensions of identity: The role of meaning-making capacity in the construction of multiple identities. Journal of College Student Development, 48(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, M., Blumenfeld, W. J., Castañeda, R., Hackman, H., Peters, M., & Zuñiga, X. (Eds.). (2000). Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, antisemitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Adelman, C. (2005). Moving into town—and moving on: The community college in the lives of traditional-age students. Washington: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  5. Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Jessup: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  6. Alexander, J. C., Giesen, B., Munch, R., & Smelser, N. J. (1987). The micro-macro link. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen, W. R., Jewell, J. O., Griffin, K. A., & Wolf, D. S. (2007). Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Honoring the past, engaging the present, touching the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 76(3), 263–280.Google Scholar
  9. Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge: Perseus.Google Scholar
  10. Alvarez, C. L. (2010). Familial negotiation of the Latina college choice process: An exploration of how parents and their daughters obtain and utilize information to navigate the process. Enrollment Management Journal, 4(4), 57–80.Google Scholar
  11. Alwin, D. F., Cohen, R. L., & Newcomb, T. M. (1991). Political attitudes over the life span: The Bennington women after fifty years. Madison: The University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  12. American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). (2002). Greater expectations: A new vision for learning as a nation goes to college. Washington: AAC&U.Google Scholar
  13. American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). (2008). High impact educational practices. Accessed 1 Oct 2009.Google Scholar
  14. Anderson, J. D. (1993). Race, meritocracy, and the American academy during the immediate post-World War II era. History of Education Quarterly, 33(2), 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Antonio, A. L. (2002). Faculty of color reconsidered. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(5), 582–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Antony, J. S. (2002). Reexamining doctoral student socialization and professional development: Moving beyond the congruence and assimilation orientation. In J. C. Smart & W. G. Tierney (Eds.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 349–380). Netherlands: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Arellano, L., Guillermo-Wann, C., Hurtado, S., & Colin, L. (2010, May). Mobility, time to degree, and institutional practices: Towards a new conceptual model of undergraduate retention for underrepresented students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  18. Ashmore, R. (1990). Sex, gender and the individual. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 486–526). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  19. Astin, A. W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297–308.Google Scholar
  20. Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Astin, A. W., & Bayer, A. E. (1971). Antecedents and consequences of disruptive campus protests. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 4(1), 18–30.Google Scholar
  22. Astin, A. W., & Oseguera, L. (2005). Degree attainment rates at American colleges and universities. Higher Education Research Institute: University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  23. Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., Bayer, A. E., & Bisconti, A. S. (1975). The power of protest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. Baker, P. (1998). Students’ perception of classroom factors that impact success for African American students in higher education settings (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1998).Google Scholar
  25. Banks, J., & McGee, C. M. (1997). Educating citizens in a multicultural society. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  26. Barnett, E. A. (2006). Validation experiences and persistence among urban community college students. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3250210).Google Scholar
  27. Barnett, E. A. (2011). Faculty validation and persistence among nontraditional community college students. Enrollment Management Journal, 5(2), 97–117.Google Scholar
  28. Bauer, K. B. (1998). Campus climate: Understanding the critical components of today’s colleges and universities. New Directions for Institutional Research, 98. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. Bean, J. P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis and test of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education, 12(2), 155–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bean, J. P., & Eaton, S. B. (2000). A psychological model of college student retention. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 48–61). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Bean, J. P., & Metzner, B. (1985). A conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition. Review of Educational Research, 55, 485–650.Google Scholar
  32. Beggs, J. M., Bantham, J. H., & Taylor, S. (2008). Distinguishing the factors influencing college students’ choice of major. College Student Journal, 42(2), 381–394.Google Scholar
  33. Bell, D. (1980). Brown v. Board of Education and the interest convergence dilemma. Harvard Law Review, 93, 518–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bensimon, E. M. (2004). The diversity scorecard: A learning approach to institutional change. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 36(1), 44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bensimon, E. M., Hao, L., & Bustillos, L. T. (2006). Measuring the state of equity in higher education. In P. Gandara, G. Orfield, & C. Horn (Eds.), Leveraging promise and expanding opportunity in higher education. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  36. Bilimoria, D., & Stewart, A. J. (2009). “Don’t ask, don’t tell”: The academic climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender faculty in science and engineering. Feminist Formations, 21(2), 85–103.Google Scholar
  37. Bollen, K. A., & Hoyle, R. H. (1990). Perceived cohesion: A conceptual and empirical examination. Social Forces, 69(2), 479–504.Google Scholar
  38. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States (3rd ed.). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  39. Bowen, H. R. (1977). Goals: The intended outcomes of higher education. In H. R. Bowen (Ed.), Investment in learning: The individual and social value of American higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Bowen, W. G., & Bok, D. (1998). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Bowman, N. A. (2009). College diversity courses and cognitive development among students from privileged and marginalized groups. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(3), 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bowman, N. A. (2010). College diversity experiences and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 80(1), 4–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bowman, N. A. (2011). Promoting participation in a diverse democracy: A meta-analysis of college diversity experiences and civic engagement. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 29–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Boyd, V. S., Hunt, P. F., Kandell, J. J., & Lucas, M. S. (2003). Relationship between identity processing style and academic success in undergraduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 44(2), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  46. Braxton, J., Milem, J., & Sullivan, A. (2000). The influence of active learning on the college student departure process. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(5), 569–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brayboy, B. M. J. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in education. The Urban Review, 37(5), 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Bresciani, M. J. (2006). Outcomes-based academic and co-curricular program review: A compilation of institutional good practices. Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  49. Bringle, R.G., & Hatcher, J.A. (2002). Campus-community partnerships: The terms of engagement. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 503–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Broido, E. M. (2000). The development of social justice allies during college: A phenomenological investigation. Journal of College Student Development, 41, 3–18.Google Scholar
  51. Broido, E. M., & Reason, R. D. (2005). The development of social justice attitudes and actions: An overview of current understandings. New Directions for Student Services, 110, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1976). The experimental ecology of education. Educational Researcher, 5(9), 5–15.Google Scholar
  53. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 53–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Havard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Six theories of development (pp. 187–249). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  56. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1993). The ecology of cognitive development: Research models and fugitive findings. In R. H. Wozniak &. W. Fisher (Eds.), Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments (pp. 3–44). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective. In P. Moen & G.H. Elder, Jr (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 619–47). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bromley, H. (1989). Identity politics and critical pedagogy. Educational Theory, 39(3), 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Brown, R. D., Clarke, B., Gortmaker, V., & Robinson-Keilig, R. (2004). Assessing the campus climate for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students using a multiple perspectives approach. Journal of College Student Development, 45(1), 8–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cameron, J. E. (2004) A three-factor model of social identity. Self and Identity, 3(3), 239–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (1998). Community Engagement Elective Classification. Accessed 26 June 2009.Google Scholar
  62. Cass, V. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Sex Roles, 20, 143–167.Google Scholar
  63. Chang, M. J., Witt, D., Jones, J., & Hakuta K. (Eds.). (2003). Compelling interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in college and universities. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Chang, M. J., Astin, A. W., & Kim, D. (2004). Cross-racial interaction among undergraduates: Some consequences, causes, and patterns. Research in Higher Education, 45, 529–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Chang, M. J., Eagan, K., Lin, M., & Hurtado, S. (2009). Stereotype threat: Undermining the persistence of racial minority freshmen in the sciences. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  66. Chapa, J., & Horn, C. L. (2007). Is anything race neutral? Comparing “race-neutral” admissions policies at the University of Texas and the University of California. In G. Orfield, P. Marin, S.M. Flores, & M.L. Garces (Eds.), Charting the future of college affirmative action: Legal victories, continuing attacks, and new research (pp. 157–172). Los Angeles: The Civil Rights Project at UCLA.Google Scholar
  67. Chatman, S. (2008). Does diversity matter in the education process? An exploration of student interactions by wealth, religion, ethnicity, and immigrant status at the University of California. Center for Studies in Higher Education: University of California.Google Scholar
  68. Chavous, T. M. (2000). The relationships among racial identity, perceived ethnic fit, and organizational involvement for African American students at a predominantly White university. Journal of Black Psychology, 26(1), 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Chickering, A. W. (1969) Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  70. Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Clayton-Pedersen, A. R., Parker, S., Smith, D. G., Moreno, J. F., & Teraguchi, D. H. (2007). Making a real difference with diversity: A guide to institutional change. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  72. Cohen, A. M. (1998). The shaping of American higher education: Emergence and growth of the contemporary system. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (1972). Confronting identity: The community college instructor. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  74. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (2008). The American community college (5th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  75. Cole, D. (2007). Do interracial interactions mater? An examination of student-faculty contact and intellectual self-concept. The Journal of Higher Education, 78(3), 249–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Coleman, A. L., & Palmer, S. R. (2004). Diversity in higher education: A strategic planning and policy manual regarding federal law in admissions, outreach, financial aid, and outreach. (June 2007). Accessed 17 June 2011.Google Scholar
  77. Conley, D. (2005). College knowledge: What it really takes for students to succeed and what we can do to get them ready. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  78. Contreras, F. (2005). The reconstruction of merit post proposition 209. Educational Policy, 19, 371–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Contreras, F., Malcom, L. E., & Bensimon, E. M. (2008). Hispanic-serving institutions: Closeted identity and the production of equitable outcomes for Latino/a students. In Gasman, M., Baez, B., & Turner, C. S. V. (Eds.), Understanding minority-serving institutions. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  80. Corwin, Z. B., & Tierney, W. G. (2007). Getting there—and beyond: Building a culture of college-going in high schools. Los Angeles: USC Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis.Google Scholar
  81. Cox, D. N. (2000). Developing a framework for understanding university-community partnerships. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 5(1), 9–26.Google Scholar
  82. Crenshaw, K. W. (1988). Race, reform, and retrenchment: Transformation and legitimation in Antidiscrimination Law. Harvard Law Review, 101(7), 1331–1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Cress, C. M. (2008). Creating inclusive learning communities: The role of student—faculty relationships in mitigating negative campus climate. Learning Inquiry, 2, 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Cross, W. E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the Cross model. In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Cases, L.A. Susuki, & C.M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook for multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Danowitz, M. A., & Tuitt, F. (2011). Enacting inclusivity through engaged pedagogy: A higher education perspective. Equity & Excellence in Education, 44(1), 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. D’Augelli, A. R. (1992). Lesbian and gay male undergraduates’ experiences of harassment and fear on campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7(3), 383–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E.J. Trickett, R.J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312–333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  88. DeAngelo, L., Pryor, J., Hurtado, S., & Tran, S. (2010). A national perspective on the first year of college: Results from the first nationally normed YFCY Survey. Session presented at Association for Institutional Research Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  89. Delgado Bernal, D. (2002). Critical race theory, Latino critical theory, and critical race-gendered epistemologies: Recognizing students of color as holders and creators of knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105–127.Google Scholar
  90. Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (Eds.). (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Dennis, J. M., Phinney, J. S., & Chuateco, L. I. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(3), 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Denson, N. (2009). Do curricular and cocurricular diversity activities influence racial bias? A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 805–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Denson, N., & Chang, M. J. (2009). Racial diversity matters: The impact of diversity-related student engagement and institutional context. American Educational Research Journal, 46(2), 322–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2002). Simulating the longitudinal effects of changes in financial aid on student departure from college. The Journal of Human Resources, 37(3), 653–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2006). An integrated model of application, admission, enrollment, and financial aid. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(3), 381–429).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Dey, E. L. (1997). Undergraduate political attitudes: Peer influence in changing social contexts. Journal of Higher Education, 68(4), 398–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Dey, E. L., & Hurtado, S. (1995). College impact, student impact: A reconsideration of the role of students within American higher education. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 30(2), 207–223.Google Scholar
  98. Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. M. (Eds.). (2010). The Sage handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  99. Dowd, A. C. (2003). From access to outcome equity: Revitalizing the democratic mission of the community college. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 586, 92–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2010). Influences on college students’ capacities for socially responsible leadership. Journal of College Student Development, 51(5), 525–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Dynarski, S. (2004). The new merit aid. In C. Hoxby (Ed.), College choices: The economics of where to go, when to go and how to pay for it (pp. 63–100). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  102. Edwards, K. E. (2006). Aspiring social justice ally identity development: A conceptual model. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 43(4), 39–60.Google Scholar
  103. Edwards, R., Raggatt, P., Harrison, R., McCollum, A., & Calder, J. (1998). Recent thinking in lifelong learning: A review of the literature. Department for Education and Employment, Research Report No. 80. Norwich NR3 1BQ: The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  104. Edwards, R., Ranson, S., & Strain, M. (2002). Reflexivity: Towards a theory of lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(6), 525–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Einfeld, A., & Collins, D. (2008). The relationship between service-learning, social justice, multicultural competence, and civic engagement. Journal of College Student Development, 49, 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Engberg, M. E. (2004) Improving intergroup relations in higher education: A critical examination of the influence of educational interventions on racial bias. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), 473–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Engberg, M. E. (2007). Educating the workforce for the 21st century: A cross-disciplinary analysis of the impact of the undergraduate experience on students’ development of a pluralistic orientation. Research in Higher Education, 48(3), 283–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Engberg, M. E., & Hurtado, S. (2011). Developing pluralistic skills and dispositions in college: Examining racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 82(4), 416–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Engberg, M. E., & Mayhew, M. J. (2007). The influence of first-year “success” courses on student learning and democratic outcomes. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 241–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Engberg, M. E., Hurtado, S., & Smith, G. C. (2007). Developing attitudes of acceptance toward lesbian, gay and bisexual peers: Enlightenment, contact, and the college experience. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 4(3), 49–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Engberg, M., & Hurtado, S. (2011). Developing pluralistic skills and dispositions in college: Examining racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 82(4), 416–443.Google Scholar
  112. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth, and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  113. Evans, N. J., & Broido, E. M. (2002). The experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in college residence halls: Implications for addressing homophobia and heterosexism. In E. P. Cramer (Ed.), Addressing homophobia and heterosexism on college campuses. Binghampton: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  114. Feagin, J. R., & Feagin, C. B. (1978). Discrimination American style: Institutional racism and sexism. Malabar: Krieger.Google Scholar
  115. Feldman, K., & Newcomb, T. (1969). The impact of college on students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  116. Ferdman, B. M., & Gallegos, P. I. (2001). Racial identity development and Latinos in the United States. In C. L. Wijeyesinghe & B. W. Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 32–66). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Fischer, G. (2001). Lifelong learning and its support with new media. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  118. Flores, S. M. (2010). State dream acts: The effect of in-state resident tuition policies and undocumented Latino students. The Review of Higher Education, 33(2), 239–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Flores, S. M., & Horn, C. L. (2009). College persistence among undocumented students at a selective public university: A quantitative case study analysis. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, theory and practice, 11(1), 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Frable, D. E. S. (1997). Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 139–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Freire, P. (1970). The “banking” concept of education. In A. S. Canestrari & B. A. Marlow (Eds.), Educational foundations: An anthology of critical readings (pp. 99–111). London: Sage (2004).Google Scholar
  122. Freire, P. (1971). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.Google Scholar
  123. Freire, P. (1983). Banking education. The hidden curriculum and moral education: Deception or discovery, 283–291.Google Scholar
  124. Gabel, S. L. (2001). I wash my face with dirty water: Narratives of disability and pedagogy. Journal of Teacher Education, 21(1), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Gándara, P. (1986). Chicanos in higher education: The politics of self-interest. American Journal of Education, 95(1), 256–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gasman, M., Baez, B., & Turner, C. S. V. (Eds.). (2008). Understanding minority-serving institutions. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  127. Giddens, A. (1979). Central problems in social theory: Action, structure, and contradiction in social analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  128. Gladieux, L. E., King, J. E., & Corrigan, M. E. (2005). The federal government and higher education. In P. G. Altbach, R. O. Berdahl, & P. J. Gumport (Eds.), American higher education in the twenty-first century: Social, political and economic challenges (2nd ed., pp. 163–197). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Glazer, N. (1975). Affirmative discrimination: Ethnic inequality and public policy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  130. Goldrick-Rab, S. (2006). Following their every move: An investigation of social-class differences in college pathways. Sociology of Education, 79(1), 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Gonzalez, R. G. (2007). Wasted talent and broken dreams: The lost potential of undocumented students. Washington: Immigration Policy Center.Google Scholar
  132. Griffin, K. A. (2008). Can reaching back push you forward?: A mixed methods exploration of Black faculty and their developmental relationship with students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  133. Grodsky, E., & Kalogrides, D. (2008). The declining significance of race in college admissions decisions. American Journal of Education, 115, 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Guardia, J. R., & Evans, N. J. (2008). Factors influencing the ethnic identity development of Latino fraternity members at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Journal of College Student Development, 49(3), 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Guillermo-Wann, C., & Johnston, M. P. (n.d.). Investigating theory and research on multiracial college students in a ‘post-racial’ era: Toward a critical model of multiraciality in higher education.Google Scholar
  136. Gurin, P. (1999). The compelling need for diversity in higher education, Expert testimony in Gratz et al. v. Bollinger et al. Michigan Journal of Race & Law, 5, 363–426.Google Scholar
  137. Gurin, P., & Markus, H. (1989). Cognitive consequences of gender identity. In S. Skevington, & D. Baker (Eds.), The social identity of women (pp. 152–172). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  138. Gurin, P., & Townsend, A. (1986). Properties of gender identity and their implications for gender consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25(2), 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Gurin, P., Dey, E. L., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72(3), 330–366.Google Scholar
  140. Gusa, D. L. (2010). White institutional presence: The impact of Whiteness on campus climate. Harvard Educational Review, 80(4), 464–489.Google Scholar
  141. Gutmann, A. (2004). Unity and diversity in democratic multicultural education: Creative and destructive tensions. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives (pp. 71–97). Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  142. Hagedorn, L. S. (2005). How to define retention: A new look at an old problem. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College retention: Formula for student success (pp. 89–106). Westport: ACE/Praeger.Google Scholar
  143. Haney López, I. F. (1994). Racism on trial: The Chicano fight for justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Hardiman, R. (2001). Reflections on White identity development theory. In C. L. Wijeyesinghe & B. W. Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 108–128). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Harding, S. (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge?: Thinking from women’s lives. Ithaca: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  146. Haro, L. (2005) Assessing equitable postsecondary educational outcomes for Hispanics in California and Texas. Unpublished dissertation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  147. Harper, S. R., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Nine themes in campus racial climates and implications for institutional transformation. New Directions for Student Services, 2007(120), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Harper, S. R., & Patton, L. D. (Eds.). (2007). Responding to the realities of race on campus. New directions for student services, no. 120. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  149. Harper, S. R., Patton, L. D., & Wooden, O. S. (2009). Access and equity for African American students in higher education: A critical race historical analysis of policy efforts. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 389–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Harris III, F., & Bensimon, E. M. (2007). The equity scorecard: A collaborative approach to assess and respond to racial/ethnic disparities in student outcomes. New Directions for Student Services, 2007(120), 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Harro, B. (2000). The cycle of socialization. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumenfeld, R. Castañeda, H. W. Hackman, M. L. Peters, & X. Zuñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, antisemitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism (pp. 15–21). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  152. Hart, J., & Fellabaum, J. (2008). Analyzing campus climate studies: Seeking to define and understand. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(4), 222–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Hausman, L. R., Schofield, J. W., & Woods, R. L. (2007). Sense of belonging as a predictor of intention to persist among African American and White first-year college students. Research in Higher Education, 48(7), 803–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Hearn, J. C. (2006). Student success: What research suggests for policy and practice. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Postsecondary Student Success.Google Scholar
  155. Hearn, J. C., & Holdsworth, J. M. (2002). Influences of state level policies and practices on college students’ learning. Peabody Journal of Education, 77(3), 6–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Heller, D. E. (2001). Trends in the affordability of public colleges and universities: The contradiction of increasing prices and increasing enrollment. In D. E. Heller (Ed.), The states and public higher education policy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Hinrichs, P. (2011). The effects of attending a diverse college. Economics of Education Review, 30, 332–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Holmes, S. L., Ebbers, L. H., Robinson, D. C., & Mugenda, A. G. (2001). Validating African American students at predominantly white institutions. Journal of College Student Retention, 2(1), 41–58.Google Scholar
  159. Hooks, B. (1984). Feminist theory from margin to center. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  160. Horowitz, H. L. (1987). Campus life: Undergraduate cultures from the end of the Eighteenth Century to the present. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  161. Hunter, J., & Schaecher, R. (1990). Lesbian and gay youth. In M. J. Rotheram-Borus, J. Bradley, & N. Obolensky (Eds.), Planning to live: Evaluating and treating suicidal teens in community settings (pp. 297–316). Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  162. Hurtado, A. (2004). Toward a more equitable society: Moving forward in the struggle for affirmative action. Review of Higher Education, 28(1), 273–284.Google Scholar
  163. Hurtado, A., Gurin, P., & Peng, T. (1994). Social identities—a framework for studying the adaptations of immigrants and ethnics: The adaptations of Mexicans in the United States. Social Problems, 41(1), 129–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Hurtado, S. (1992). The campus racial climate: Contexts of conflict. The Journal of Higher Education, 63(5), 539–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hurtado, S. (2003). Preparing college students for a diverse democracy: Final report to the US Department of Education, OERI, Field Initiated Studies Program. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education.Google Scholar
  166. Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations research. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 595–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Hurtado, S. (2007). ASHE presidential address: Linking diversity with the educational and civic missions of higher education. Review of Higher Education, 30(2), 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. F. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of campus climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70, 324–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Hurtado, S., & Wathington Cade, H. (2001). “Time for retreat” or renewal? The impact of Hopwood on Campus. In Heller, D. (Ed.), The states and public higher education: affordability, access, and accountability. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Hurtado, S., & Ponjuan, L. (2005). Latino educational outcomes and the campus climate. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hurtado, S., Carter, D. F., & Spuler, A. (1996). Latino student transition to college: Assessing difficulties and factors in successful college adjustment. Research in Higher Education, 37(2), 135–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Hurtado, S., Maestas, R., Hill, L., Inkelas, K., Wathington, H. D., & Waterson, E. (1998a). Perspectives on the climate for diversity: Findings and suggested recommendations for the Texas A & M University campus community. Ann Arbor: Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education.Google Scholar
  173. Hurtado, S., Milem, J. F., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W. (1998b). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity: Educational policy and practice. Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Hurtado, S., Milem, J. F., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting diverse learning environments: Improving the climate for racial/ethnic diversity in higher education institutions. Washington: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Series: George Washington University Graduate School of Education.Google Scholar
  175. Hurtado, S., Engberg, M. E., Ponjuan, L., & Landerman, L. (2002). Students’ precollege preparation for participation in a diverse democracy. Research in Higher Education, 43(2), 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Hurtado, S., Dey, E. L., Gurin, P. Y., & Gurin, G. (2003). College environments, diversity, and student learning. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 18, pp. 145–190). Great Britain: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Hurtado, S., Han, J. C., Saénz, V. B., Espinosa, L. L., Cabrera, N. L., & Cerna, O. S. (2007). Predicting transition and adjustment to college: Biomedical and behavioral science aspirants’ and minority students’ first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 48(7), 841–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Hurtado, S., Griffin, K. A., Arellano, L., & Cuellar, M. (2008). Assessing the value of climate assessments: Progress and future directions. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(4), 204–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Hurtado, S., Cuellar, M., & Guillermo-Wann, C. (2011a). Quantitative measures of students’ sense of validation: Advancing the study of diverse learning environments. Enrollment Management Journal, 5(2), 53–71.Google Scholar
  180. Hurtado, S., Ruiz, A., & Guillermo-Wann, C. (2011b). Thinking about race: The salience of racial and ethnic identity and its relationship to perceptions of campus climate. Paper presented at the Association for Institutional Research Annual Forum, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
  181. Inkelas, K. K., Drechsler, M., Szelényi, K., Kim, Y. C., Fellow, P., McCarron, G. P., et al. (2007). National Study of Living-Learning Programs: 2007 report of findings. College Park: NSLLP.Google Scholar
  182. Inman, W. E., & Mayers, L. (1999). The importance of being first: Unique characteristics of first generation community college students. Community College Review, 26(3), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Ishitani, T. T. (2006). Studying attrition and degree completion behavior among first-generation college students in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 861–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Jackson, B.W. (1988). A model for teaching to diversity. Unpublished paper from Faculty and Teaching Assistant Development Workshop, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  185. Jayakumar, U. M. (2007). Can higher education meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society and global marketplace? Campus diversity and cross-cultural workforce competencies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  186. Jayakumar, U. M. (2009). The invisible rainbow in diversity: Factors influencing sexual prejudice among college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 56(6), 675–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Johnson, A. (2005). Privilege, power, and difference (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  188. Johnson, N., Oliff, P., & William, E. (2010). An update on state budget cuts. At least 46 states have imposed cuts that hurt vulnerable residents and cause job loss. Washington: Center on Budget & Policy Priorities.Google Scholar
  189. Johnson-Bailey, J., Valentine, T., Cervero, R. M., & Bowles, T. A. (2009). Rooted in the soil: The social experiences of Black graduate students at a southern research university. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(2), 178–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Jones, S. R. (2009). Constructing identities at the intersections: An autoethnographic exploration of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of College Student Development, 50(3), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Jones, S. R., & McEwen, M. K. (2000). A conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of College Student Development, 41(4), 405–414.Google Scholar
  192. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 965–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Kardia, D. B., & Wright, M. (2004). Instructor identity: The impact of gender and race on faculty experiences with teaching: Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, No. 19, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  194. Katz, P. (1986). Gender identity: Development and consequences. In R. Ashmore & F. Del Boca (Eds.), The social psychology of female-male relations (pp. 21–67). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  195. Keating, D. P., & Crane, L. L. (1990). Domain-general and domain-specific processes in proportional reasoning. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 36, 411–424.Google Scholar
  196. Keeling, R. P. (Ed). (2006). Learning reconsidered 2: A practical guide to implementing a campus-wide focus on the student experiences. Washington: ACPA, ACUHO-I, ACUI, NACA, NACADA, NASPA, and NIRSA.Google Scholar
  197. Kelly, B. T., & Torres, A. (2006). Campus safety: Perceptions and experiences of woman students. Journal of College Student Development, 47(1), 20–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Key, A. M. (1999). Campus climate: Perceptions, policies and programs in community colleges. American Association of Community Colleges Research Brief.Google Scholar
  199. Kezar, A. J., & Eckel, P. D. (2002). Examining the institutional transformation process: The importance of sensemaking, interrelated strategies, and balance. Research in Higher Education, 43(3), 205–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Kezar, A. J., Chambers, T. C., & Burkhardt, J. C. (Eds.). (2005). Higher education for the public good: Emerging voices from a national movement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  201. Kezar, A. J., Eckel, P., Contreras-McGavin, M., & Quane, S. J. (2008). Creating a web of support: An important leadership strategy for advancing campus diversity. Higher Education, 55, 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Kim, D. (2007). The effect of loans on students’ degree attainment: Differences by student and institutional characteristics. Harvard Educational Review, 77(1), 64–97.Google Scholar
  203. Kim, J. (2001). Asian American identity development theory. In C. L. Wijeyesinghe & B. W. Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 67–90). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  204. Kohlberg, L. (1966). A cognitive-developmental analysis of children’s sex-role concepts and attitudes. In E. Maccoby (Ed.), The development of sex differences (pp. 82–172). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  205. Kroger, J., Martinussen, M., & Marcia, J. E. (2010). Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 683–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  207. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2007). Piecing together the student success puzzle: Research, propositions, and recommendations. ASHE higher education report (Vol. 32, No. 5). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  208. Lacy, W. B. (1978). Interpersonal relationships as mediators of structural effects: College student socialization in a traditional and an experimental university environment. Sociology of Education, 51(3), 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Education Research Journal, 32(3), 465–491.Google Scholar
  210. Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate IV, W.F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97(1), 47–68.Google Scholar
  211. Langhout, R. D., Rosselli, F., & Feinstein, J. (2007). Assessing classism in academic settings. The Review of Higher Education, 30(2), 145–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Langhout, R. D., Drake, P., & Rosselli, F. (2009). Classism in the university setting: Examining student antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(3), 166–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Lawrence, J., & Blackburn, R. (1985). Faculty careers: Maturation, demographic, and historical effects. Research in Higher Education, 22(2), 135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Leslie, L. L., & Brinkman, P. T. (1988). The economic value of higher education. Phoenix: American Council on Education and Oryx Press.Google Scholar
  215. Little, P., & Marx, M. (2002). Teaching about heterosexism and creating an empathetic experience of homophobia. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6(3), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Locks, A. M., Hurtado, S., Bowman, N. A., & Oseguera, L. (2008). Extending notions of campus climate and diversity to students’ transition to college. Review of Higher Education, 31(3), 257–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Long, M. C., & Tienda, M. (2008). Winners and losers: Changes in Texas University admissions post-Hopwood. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(3), 255–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Long, M. C., & Tienda, M. (2010). Changes in Texas universities’ applicant pools after the Hopwood decision. Social Science Research, 39(1), 48–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Longo, N.V. (2007). Why community matters: Connecting education with civic life. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  220. Lucozzi, E. A. (1998). A far better place: Institutions as allies. In R. L. Sanlo (Ed.), Working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender college students: A handbook for faculty and administrators (pp. 47–52). Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  221. Lumina Foundation. (2011). The degree qualifications profile: Defining degrees: A new direction for American higher education to be tested and developed in partnership with faculty, students, leaders, and stake holders. Indianapolis: Lumina Foundation.Google Scholar
  222. Lyons, A. C., & Hunt, J. L. (2003). The credit practices and financial education needs of community college students. Financial Counseling and Planning, 14(1), 63–74.Google Scholar
  223. Maramba, D. C. (2008). Understanding campus climate through the voice of Filipina/o American college students. College Student Journal, 42(4), 1045–1060.Google Scholar
  224. Marchesani, L. S., & Adams, M. (1992). Dynamics of diversity in the teaching-learning process: A faculty development model for analysis and action. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 52, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Marullo, S., & Edwards, B. (2000). From charity to justice: The potential of university-community collaboration for social change. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(5), 895–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Massey, D. S., & Mooney, M. (2007). The effects of America’s three affirmative action programs on academic performance. Social Problems, 54(1), 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Matthews, D. J., & Keating, D. P. (1995). Domain specificity and habits of mind: An investigation of patterns of high-level development. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 15(3), 319–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Mayhew, M. J., & Engberg, M. E. (2011). Promoting the development of civic responsibility: Infusing service-learning practices in first-year “success” courses. Journal of College Student Development, 52(1), 20–38.Google Scholar
  231. Mayhew, M. J., Grunwald, H. E., & Dey, E. L. (2006). Breaking the silence: Achieving a positive climate for diversity from the staff perspective. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 63–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Mayhew, M. J., Wolniak, G. C., & Pascarella, E. T. (2008). How educational practices affect the development of life-long learning orientations in traditionally-aged undergraduate students. Research in Higher Education, 49, 337–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. McClafferty, K. A., McDonough, P. M., & Nuñez, A.-M. (2002). What is a college culture? Facilitating college preparation through organizational change. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  234. McCormick, A. (2003). Changing student attendance patters. New Directions for Higher Education, 121, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. McEwen, M. K., Roper, L. D., Bryant, D. R., & Langa, M. J. (1990). Incorporating the development of African American students into psychosocial theories of student development. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 429–436.Google Scholar
  236. Milem, J. F., & Hakuta, K. (2000). The benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education. In D. J. Wilds (Ed.), Minorities in higher education, 1999–2000, seventeenth Annual Status Report (pp. 39–67). Washington: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  237. Milem, J. F., Berger, J. B., & Dey, E. L. (2000). Faculty time allocation: A student of change over twenty years. Journal of Higher Education, 71(4), 454–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Milem, J. F., Chang, M. J., & Antonio, A. L. (2005). Making diversity work on campus: A research based perspective. Washington: American Association of Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  239. Minnich, E. K. (1990). Transforming knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  240. Moses, M. S., & Chang, M. J. (2006). Toward a deeper understanding of the diversity rationale. Educational Researcher, 35(6), 6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Morfin, O. J., Pérez, V. H., Parker, L., Lynn, M., & Arrona, J. (2006). Hiding the politically obvious: A critical race theory preview of diversity as racial neutrality in higher education. Educational Policy, 20, 249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Morgan, G. (2006). Nature intervenes: Organizations as organisms. In G. Morgan (Ed.), Images of organizations, (Updated ed., pp. 33–69). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  243. Murakami-Ramalho, E., Nuñez A.-M., & Cuero, K. K. (2010). Latin@ advocacy in the hyphen: Faculty identity and commitment in a Hispanic-serving institution. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 23(6), 699–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Museus, S. D., & Truong, K. A. (2009). Disaggregating qualitative data from Asian American college students in campus racial climate research and assessment. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2009(142), 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Museus, S. D., & Maramba, D. C. (2011). The impact of culture on Filipino American students’ sense of belonging. Review of Higher Education, 34(2), 231–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Museus, S. D., Nichols, A. H., & Lambert, A. D. (2008). Racial differences in the effects of campus racial climate on degree completion: A structural equation model. Review of Higher Education, 32(1), 107–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Navarro, R. L., Worthington, R. L., Hart, J., & Khairallah, T. (2009). Liberal and conservative political ideology, experiences of harassment, and perceptions of campus climate. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(2), 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Nelson Laird, T. F. (2005). College students’ experiences with diversity and their effects on academic self-confidence, social agency, and disposition toward critical thinking. Research in Higher Education, 46(4), 365–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Nelson Laird, T. F., Engberg, M. E., & Hurtado, S. (2005). Modeling accentuation effects: Enrolling in a diversity course and the importance of social action engagement. Journal of Higher Education, 76(4), 448–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Nora, A. (2003). Access to higher education for Hispanic students: Real or illusory? In J. Castellanos & L. Jones (Eds.), The majority in the minority: Expanding the representation of Latina/o faculty, administrators, and students in higher education (pp. 47–68). Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  251. Nora, A., & Cabrera, A. F. (1996). The role of perceptions in prejudice and discrimination and the adjustment of minority students to college. Journal of Higher Education, 67(2), 119–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Nora, A., Barlow, E., & Crisp, G. (2005). Student persistence and degree attainment beyond the first year in college. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College retention: Formula for student success (pp. 129–153). Westport: ACE/Praeger.Google Scholar
  253. Nuñez, A.-M. (2009a). Latino students’ transitions to college: A social and intercultural capital perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 79(1), 22–48.Google Scholar
  254. Nuñez, A.-M. (2009b). Modeling the effects of diversity experiences and multiple capitals on Latina/o college students’ academic self-confidence Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8(2), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Nuñez, A.-M., & Murakami-Ramalho, E. (2011). Identity development and socialization of mixed-heritage Latina faculty in academe: Perspectives from junior faculty at a Hispanic-serving institution. In J. M. Gaetane & B. Lloyd-Jones (Eds.), Women of color: Turbulent past, promising future. Bingley: Emerald Press.Google Scholar
  256. Obama, B. (2009). The American Graduation Initiative. Speech presented at Warren, MI.Google Scholar
  257. O’Connor, C. (2002). Black women beating the odds from one generation to the next: How the changing dynamics of constraint and opportunity affect the process of educational resilience. American Educational Research Journal, 39(4), 855–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formations in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  259. Orfield, G., & Lee, C. (2005). Why segregation matters: Poverty and educational inequality. Cambridge: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  260. Orfield, G., Bachmeier, M. D., James, D. R., & Eitle, T. (1997). Deepening segregation in American public schools: A special report from the Harvard Project on School Segregation. Equity & Excellence in Education, 30(2), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Orfield, G., Marin, P., Flores, S. M., & Garces, L. M. (Eds.). (2007). Charting the future of college affirmative action: Legal victories, continuing attacks, and new research. Los Angeles: The Civil Rights Project at UCLA.Google Scholar
  262. Oseguera, L., & Rhee, B. S. (2009). The influence of institutional retention climates on student persistence to degree completion: A multilevel approach. Research in Higher Education, 50(6), 546–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Ostrove, J. M., & Long, S. M. (2007). Social class and belonging: Implications for college adjustment. The Review of Higher Education, 30(4), 363–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Outcalt, C. L., & Skewes-Cox, T. E. (2002). Involvement, interaction, and satisfaction: The human environment at HBCUs. The Review of Higher Education, 25(3), 331–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Owen, D. S. (2009). Privileged social identities and diversity leadership in education. The Review of Higher Education, 32(2), 185–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Park, J. J. (2009). Are we satisfied? A look at student satisfaction with diversity at traditionally White institutions. The Review of Higher Education, 32(3), 291–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  268. Paulsen, M., & St. John, E. (2002). Social class and college costs: Examining the financial nexus between college choice and persistence. Journal for Higher Education, 73, 189–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Pepper, M. B., Tredennick, L., & Reyes, R. F. (2010). Transparency and trust as antecedents to perceptions of commitment to state diversity goals. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 3(3), 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Pérez, W. (2009). We are all Americans: Undocumented students pursuing the American dream. Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  271. Pérez Huber, L., & López, C. B. (2008). Getting beyond the symptom, acknowledging the disease: Theorizing racist nativism. Contemporary Justice Review, 11(1), 39–51.Google Scholar
  272. Perna, L. W. (2003). The private benefits of higher education: An examination of the earnings premium. Research in Higher Education, 44, 451–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Perna, L. W. (2006a). Studying college access and choice: A proposed conceptual model. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 21 pp. 99–157). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  274. Perna, L. W. (2006b). Understanding the relationship between information about college prices and financial aid and students’ college-related behaviors. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1620–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Perna, L. W. (2007). Understanding high school students’ willingness to borrow to pay college prices. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 589–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Perna, L. W., & Thomas, S. L. (2006). A framework for reducing the college success gap and promoting success for all. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Postsecondary Student Success.Google Scholar
  277. Perna, L. W., Milem, J. F., Gerald, D., Baum, E., Rowan, H., & Hutchens, N. (2005). The status of equity for Black undergraduates in public higher education in the south: Still separate and unequal. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Institutional Research, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  278. Perrow, C. (1986). The environment. In A. J. Reiss, Jr. & H. L. Wilensky (Eds.), Complex organizations: A critical essay, (3rd ed. pp. 208–218). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  279. Peter, K., & Cataldi, E. F. (2005). The road less traveled? Students who enroll in multiple institutions (NCES 2005–157). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  280. Peterson, M. W., & Spencer, M. G. (1990). Understanding academic culture and climate. New Directions for Institutional Research, 1990(68), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Peterson, M. W., Blackburn, R. T., Gamson, Z. F., Arce, C. H., Davenport, R. W., & Mingle, J. R. (1978). Black students on White campuses: The impacts of increased Blacks enrollments. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  282. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Pike, G. R., & Kuh, G. D. (2006). Relationships among structural diversity, informal peer interactions and perceptions of the campus environment. The Review of Higher Education, 29(4), 425–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Pizzolato, J. E., Chaudhari, P., Murrell, E. D., Podobnik, S, & Schaeffer, Z. (2008). Ethnic identity, epistemological development, and academic achievement in underrepresented students. Journal of College Student Development, 49(4), 301–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Porchea, S. F., Allen, J., Robbins, S., & Phelps, R. P. (2010). Predictors of long-term enrollment and degree outcomes for community college students: Integrating academic, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational factors. The Journal of Higher Education, 81(6), 750–778.Google Scholar
  286. Pryor, J. H., Hurtado, S., Sáenz, V. B., Santos, J. L., & Korn, W. S. (2007). The American freshman: Forty year trends. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute.Google Scholar
  287. Rankin, S. R. (2003). Campus climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: A national perspective. New York: NGLTF Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  288. Rankin, S. R. (2004). Campus climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. The Climate for Diversity on Campus, 12(1), 18–23.Google Scholar
  289. Rankin, S. R., & Reason, R. D. (2005). Differing perceptions: How students of color and white students perceive campus climate for underrepresented groups. Journal of College Student Development, 46(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Rankin, S. R., & Reason, R. D. (2008). Transformational tapestry model: A comprehensive approach to transforming campus climate. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(4), 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Reid, L. D., & Radhakrishnan, P. (2003). Race matters: The relation between race and general campus climate. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(3), 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Remafedi, G. (1987). Adolescent homosexuality: Psychosocial and medical implications. Pediatrics, 79, 331–337.Google Scholar
  293. Rendón, L. I. (1994). Validating culturally diverse students: Toward a new model for learning and student development. Innovative Higher Education, 27(4), 235–252.Google Scholar
  294. Rendón, L. I. (2009). Sentipensante (sensing/thinking) pedagogy: Educating for wholeness, social justice, and liberation. Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  295. Rendón, L. I., & Jalomo, R. (1995). Validating student experience and promoting progress, performance, and persistence through assessment. Paper presented at the NCTLA Assessment Institute.Google Scholar
  296. Rendón, L. I., Jalomo, R. E., & Nora, A. (2000). Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 127–156). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  297. Renn, K. A. (2000). Patterns of situational identity among biracial and multiracial college students. The Review of Higher Education, 23(4), 399–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Renn, K. A. (2003). Understanding the identities of mixed-race college students through a developmental ecology lens. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 383–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Renn, K.A. (2004). Mixed race students in college: The ecology of race, identity, and community on campus. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  300. Renn, K. A. (2010). LGBT and queer research in higher education: The state and status of the field. Educational Researcher, 39(2), 132–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Renn, K. A., & Arnold, K. D. (2003). Reconceptualizing research on college student peer culture. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 261–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Reybold, L. E. (2003). Pathways to the professorate: The development of faculty identity in education. Innovative Higher Education, 27(4), 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Rhee, B. S. (2008). Institutional climate and student departure: A multinomial multilevel modeling approach. The Review of Higher Education, 31(2), 161–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Richardson, R. C., & Skinner, E. F. (1990). Adapting to diversity: Organizational influences on student achievement. Journal of Higher Education, 61(5), 485–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Richardson, R. C., & Skinner, E. (1991). Achieving diversity. Washington: ACE/Macmillan.Google Scholar
  306. Rodriguez, A., Guido-DiBrito, F., Torrez, V., & Talbot, D. (2000). Latina college students: Issues and challenges for the 21st Century. NASPA Journal, 37(3), 511–527.Google Scholar
  307. Rodgers, K. A., & Summers, J. J. (2008). African American students at predominantly White institutions: A motivational and self-systems approach to understanding retention. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Rooney, M. (2002). Report on Latino-American students’ notes high college-enrollment rate, lower graduation rate [Electronic version]. Accessed 28 Sept 2009.Google Scholar
  309. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Rosario, M., & Koopman, C. (1991). Minority youth at high risk: Gay males and runaways. In S. Gore & M. E. Colten (Eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences (pp. 181–200). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  310. Rowan-Kenyon, H. T., Bell, A. D., & Perna, L. W. (2008). Contextual influences on parental involvement in college going: Variations by socioeconomic class. The Journal of Higher Education, 79(5), 564–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Rowley, L., & Hurtado, S. (2003). The non-monetary benefits of undergraduate education. In Lewis, D. & Hearn, J. (Eds.), The Public Research University: Serving the public good in New Times (pp. 207–229). Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  312. Rowley, L., Hurtado, S., & Ponjuan, L. (2002, April). Organizational rhetoric or reality? The disparities between avowed commitment to diversity and formal programs and initiatives in higher education institutions. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  313. Sáenz, V. B., Ngai, H. N., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Factors influencing positive interactions across race for African American, Asian American, Latino, and White college students. Research in Higher Education, 48(1), 43–61.Google Scholar
  314. Sanford, N. (1966). Self and society. New York: Atherton Press.Google Scholar
  315. Sanlo, R. (2004). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual college students: Risk, resiliency, and retention. Journal of College Student Retention, 6(1), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Santos, J. L., Cabrera, N. L., & Fosnacht, K. J. (2010). Is “race-neutral” really race-neutral?: Disparate impact towards underrepresented minorities in post-209 UC system admissions. The Journal of Higher Education, 81(6), 675–701.Google Scholar
  317. Scott, W. R., & Davis, G. F. (2007). Organizations and organizing: Rational, natural, and open system perspectives. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  318. Sedlacek, W. E., Longerbeam, S. L., & Alatorre, H. A. (2003). In their own voices: What do the data on Latino students mean to them? College Park: University of Maryland Counseling Center.Google Scholar
  319. Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Cooke, D. Y. (1998). Racial ideology and racial centrality as predictors of African American college students’ academic performance. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(1), 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Shammas, D. S. (2009a). Post-9/11 Arab and Muslim American community college students: Ethno-religious enclaves and perceived discrimination. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 33, 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Shammas, D. S. (2009b). The effects of campus friendships and perceptions of racial climates on the sense of belonging among Arab and Muslim community college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  322. Siegel, D. J. (2008). Building a pipeline for diversity through intersectoral collaboration. Higher Education, 55(5), 519–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Singley, D. B., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2009). Differences in universal-diverse orientation by race-ethnicity and gender. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(4), 404–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Smith, D. G. (1995). Organizational implications of diversity in higher education. In M. M. Chemers, S. Oskamp, & M. A. Costanzo (Eds.), Diversity in organizations (pp. 220–244). New Port: Sage.Google Scholar
  325. Smith, D. G. (1996). Achieving faculty diversity: Debunking the myths. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  326. Smith, D. G., Gerbick, G. L., Figueroa, M. A., Watkins, G. H, Levitan, T., Moore, L. C., Merchant, P. A., Beliak, H. D., & Figueroa, B. (1997). Diversity works: The emerging picture of how students benefit. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  327. Solomon, B. M. (1985). In the company of educated women: A history of women and higher education in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  328. Solórzano, D. G., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. J. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate. Journal of Negro Education, 60(1/2).Google Scholar
  329. Solórzano, D. G., & Delgado Bernal, D. (2001). Examining transformational resistance through a critical race and Latcrit theory framework: Chicana and Chicano students in an urban context. Urban Education, 36(3), 308–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Solberg, V. S., O’Brian, K., Villareal, P., Kennel, R., & Davis, B. (1993). Self-efficacy and Hispanic college students: Validation of the college self-efficacy instrument. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15, 80–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Stanley, C. A. (2006). Coloring the academic landscape: Faculty of color breaking the silence in predominantly White colleges and universities. American Educational Research Journal, 43(4), 701–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2004). Social capital among working-class minority students. In M. A. Gibson, P. C. Gándara, & J. P. Koyama (Eds.), School connections: US Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement (pp. 18–38). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  333. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2010). A social capital framework for the study of institutional agents and their role in the empowerment of low-status students and youth. Youth & Society, 10(5), 1–44.Google Scholar
  334. Stanton-Salazar, R. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1995). Social capital and the social reproduction of inequality: Information networks among Mexican- origin high school students. Sociology of Education 68(2), 116–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Steele, C. M. (1999). Thin ice: “Stereotype threat” and black college students. The Atlantic Monthly, 44–54.Google Scholar
  336. St. John, E. P., Affolter-Caine, B., & Cung, A. S. (2007). Race-conscious student financial aid: Constructing an agenda for research, litigation, and policy development. In G. Orfield, P. Marin, S. M. Flores, & M. L. Garces (Eds.), Charting the future of college affirmative action: Legal victories, continuing attacks, and new research. Los Angeles: The Civil Rights Project at UCLA. (pp. 173–204).Google Scholar
  337. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Orellana-Damacela, L., Nelson, P., Rowan, J. M., & Andrews-Guillen, C. (2003). Experiences of differential treatment among college students of color. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(4), 428–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  339. Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information, 13(2), 65–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  341. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  342. Tatum, B. (2000). Who am I? The complexity of identity. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumenfeld, R. Castaneda, H. Hackman, M. Peters, & X. Zuñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, antisemitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  343. Terenzini, P. T., Springer, L., Yaeger, P. M., Pascarella, E. T., & Nora, A. (1996). First- generation college students: Characteristics, experiences, and cognitive development. Research in Higher Education, 37(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Terenzini, P. T., Cabrera, A. F., Colbeck, C. L., Bjorklund, S. A., & Parente, J. M. (2001). Racial and ethnic diversity in the classroom? Does it promote student learning? The Journal of Higher Education, 72(5), 509–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. The College Board. (2009). How colleges organize themselves to increase student persistence: Four-year institutions. New York: College Board Advocacy.Google Scholar
  346. Thompson, M., & Sekaquaptewa, D. (2002). When being different is detrimental: Solo status and the performance of women and racial minorities. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Tierney, W. G. (1987). Facts and constructs: Defining reality in higher education organizations. Review of Higher Education, 11(1), 61–73.Google Scholar
  348. Tierney, W. G. (1992). An anthropological analysis of student participation in college. Journal of Higher Education, 63, 603–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  350. Tinto, V., & Pusser, B. (2006). Moving from theory to action: Building a model for institutional action for student success. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Postsecondary Student Success.Google Scholar
  351. Titus, M.A. (2006a). No college student left behind: The influence of financial aspects of a state’s higher education policy on college completion. The Review of Higher Education, 29(3), 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Titus, M. A. (2006b). Understanding college degree completion of students with low socioeconomic status: The influence of the institutional financial context. Research in Higher Education, 47(4), 371–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Titus, M. A. (2009). The production of bachelor’s degrees and financial aspects of state higher education policy: A dynamic analysis. Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 439–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Townsend, B. K. (2001). Redefining the community college transfer mission. Community College Review, 29(2), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Tseng, V. (2004). Family interdependence and academic adjustment in college: Youths from immigrant and U.S.-born families. Child Development, 75(3), 966–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Tuitt, F. (2003). Afterword: Realizing a more inclusive pedagogy. In A. Howell &  F. Tuitt (Eds.), Race and higher education: Rethinking pedagogy in diverse classrooms. Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review.Google Scholar
  357. Tuitt, F., Hanna, M., Martínez, L. M., Salazar, M. D. C., & Griffin, R. (2009). Teaching in the line of fire: Faculty of color in the academy. Thought and Action, Fall, 65–74.Google Scholar
  358. Turner, C.S.V., González, J.C., & Wood, J.L. (2008). Faculty of color in academe. What 20 years of literature tells us. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(3), 139–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. University of Minnesota. (2011) Reimagining equity and diversity: A framework for transforming the University of Minnesota. www/ Accessed 27 June 2011.Google Scholar
  360. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. (2008). Projected population by single year of age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin for the United States: July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2050. Accessed 25 Feb 2011.Google Scholar
  361. U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). [Map and graph illustration of the U.S. Redistricting Data and Changes of the National Population by Race from 2000–2010]. 2010 Census results. Accessed 8 July 2011.Google Scholar
  362. U.S. Department of Education. (2006). A test of leadership: Charting the future of U.S. higher education. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  363. U.S. Department of Education. (2010). The role and responsibilities of states in increasing access, quality, and completion: Under Secretary Martha J. Kanter’s remarks at the SHEEO Higher Education Policy Conference. Accessed 24 Jan 2011.Google Scholar
  364. Waldo, C. R. (1998). Out on campus: Sexual orientation and academic climate in a university context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(5), 745–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2000). Community-centered service learning: Moving from doing for to doing with. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(5), 767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Ward, K., & Vernon, A. (1999). Community perspectives on student volunteerism and service learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  367. Weidman, J. C. (1989). Undergraduate socialization: A conceptual approach. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Higher Education (Vol. 5). New York: Agathon.Google Scholar
  368. Weiler, K. (1991). Freire and a feminist pedagogy of difference. Harvard Educational Review, 61(4), 449–475.Google Scholar
  369. Wiewel, W., & Lieber, M. (1998). Goal achievement, relationship building, and incrementalism: The challenges of university-community partnerships. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 17(4), 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Williams, D. A. (2007). Achieving inclusive excellence: Strategies for creating real and sustainable change in quality and diversity. About Campus, 12(1), 8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Williams, D. A. (2010). Campus climate & culture study: Taking strides towards a better future. Florida Gulf Coast University. Accessed 7 June 2011.Google Scholar
  372. Williams, J. B. (Ed.). (1988). Desegregating America’s colleges and universities. New York: Teachers College.Google Scholar
  373. Williams, D. A., Berger, J. B., & McClendon, S. A. (2005). Toward a model of inclusive excellence and change in postsecondary institutions. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  374. Worthington, R. L., Navarro, R. L., Loewy, M., & Hart, J. (2008). Color-blind racial attitudes, social dominance orientation, racial-ethnic group membership and college students’ perceptions of campus climate. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(1), 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Yoder, J. D., Tobias, A., & Snell, A. F. (2011). When declaring “I am a feminist” matters: Labeling is linked to activism. Sex Roles, 64(1–2), 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Yosso, T. J., Smith, W. A., Ceja, M., & Solórzano, D. G. (2009). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate for Latina/o undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79(4), 659–690.Google Scholar
  377. Zúñiga, X., Williams, E. A., & Berger, J. B. (2005). Action-oriented democratic outcomes: The impact of student involvement with campus diversity. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 660–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Zúñiga, X., Nagda, B. A., Chesler, M., & Cytron-Walker, A. (2007). Intergroup dialogue in higher education: Meaningful learning about social justice. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report (Vol. 32, No. 4). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  379. Zimmerman, M. H. (1991). Perspectives on the interpersonal relationships of learners in college learning communities. Seattle: Seattle University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCLA Higher Education Research InstituteUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Higher Education Administration and PolicyUniversity of California, RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations