Serum α-Chemokine CXCL10 and β-Chemokine CCL2 Levels in HCV-Positive Cryoglobulinemia

  • Alessandro Antonelli
  • Clodoveo Ferri
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari
  • Michele Colaci
  • Ilaria Ruffilli
  • Caterina Mancusi
  • Ele Ferrannini
  • Poupak Fallahi


Chemokines are a group of low-molecular-weight peptides that induce the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. Among the four major families, CXC chemokines, with CXCL10 as the prototype, display a strong chemo-attractant activity for Th1 lymphocytes and is a reliable marker of Th1-immune mediated diseases. Chemokines from the CC family, with CCL2 as the prototype, are chemo-attractant to Th2 lymphocytes. Our studies demonstrate significantly high serum levels of CXCL10 in patients with MC+HCV with respect to HCV-infected patients without mixed cryoglobulinemia, in particular in the presence of active vasculitis, autoimmune thyroiditis or diabetes. Serum levels of CCL2 in MC+HCV were higher than in controls, but similar to those in HCV-infected patients without mixed cryoglobulinemia. The high levels of CXCL10 in MC+HCV suggest that a Th1 immune process is the immunological base of the association between MC+HCV and the appearance of the above-mentioned disorders. Future studies in larger patient series will be needed to evaluate the relevance of serum CXCL10 as clinico-prognostic marker of MC+HCV, as well as its usefulness in the therapeutic approach to these patients.


Autoimmune Thyroiditis Mixed Cryoglobulinemia CXCL10 Level Active Vasculitis Large Patient Series 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Antonelli
    • 1
  • Clodoveo Ferri
    • 2
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari
    • 1
  • Michele Colaci
    • 2
  • Ilaria Ruffilli
    • 1
  • Caterina Mancusi
    • 1
  • Ele Ferrannini
    • 1
  • Poupak Fallahi
    • 1
  1. 1.Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Pisa School of MedicinePisaItaly
  2. 2.Rheumatology Unit, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Medical SchoolModenaItaly

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