Advertisement

Milk Oligosaccharides: Structural Characterization and Future Aspects

  • Tadasu Urashima

Abstract

Milk oligosaccharides are a variety of free saccharides which are found in milk/colostrum along with lactose, and have a lactose unit at their reducing ends. Human milk contains about 7% of carbohydrate of which around 20% consists of more than 100 milk oligosaccharides. Detailed structural studies of human milk oligosaccharides were started by Richard Kuhn during the 1950s, followed by those of Montreuil et al., Kobata et al., Egge et al., Strecker et al., Gronberg et al. and Kitagawa et al., etc. At least 93 human milk oligosaccharides have been characterized up to date (Urashima et al. 1997). Nonhuman milk oligosaccharides have been studied by Kuhn et al., Messer et al., and Urashima et al., etc., and more than 100 oligosaccharides were characterized in milk or colostrum of brown capuchin, buffalo, horse, cow, goat, sheep, Ezo brown bear, Japanese black bear, polar bear, whitenosed-coati, elephant, rat, dog, beluga, Minke whale, giant panda, crabeater seal, hooded seal, bearded seal, harbor seal, mink, bottlenose dolphin, echidna, platypus, and tammar wallaby (Urashima et al. 2001).

Keywords

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Polar Bear Giant Panda Bottlenose Dolphin Harbor Seal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Coppa GV, Pierani P, Zampini L, Carloni I, Carlucci A, Catacci C, Gabrielli O (1999) Oligosaccharides in human milk during different phases of lactation. Acta Paediatr Suppl 430:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hirabayashi J, Hashidate T, Arata Y, Nishi N, Nakamura T, Hirashima M, Urashima T, Oka T, Futai M, Muller WEG, Yagi F, Kasai K (2002) Oligosaccharide specificity of galectins: a search by frontal affinity chromatography. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572:232–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Nakajima K, Kinoshita M, Matsushita N, Urashima T, Suzuki M, Suzuki A, Kakehi K. (2006) Capillary affinity electrophoresis using lectins for the analysis of milk oligosaccharide structure and its application to bovine colostrums oligosaccharides. Anal Biochem 348:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nakamura T, Amikawa S, Harada T, Saito T, Arai I, Urashima T (2001) Occurrence of an unusual phosphorylated N-acetyllactosamine in horse colostrum. Biochim Biophys Acta 1525:13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Pelletier I, Hashidate T, Urashima T, Nishi, N, Nakamura T, Futai M, Arata Y, Kasai K, Hirashima M, Hirabayashi J, Sato S (2003) Specific recognition of Leishmania major Poly-beta-galactosyl epitopes by Galactin-9. J Biol Chem 278:22223–22230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Uemura Y, Asakuma S, Nakamura T, Arai I, Taki M, Urashima T (2005) Occurrence of unique sialyl tetrasaccharide in colostrums of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Biochim. Biophys Acta 1725:290–297Google Scholar
  7. Urashima T, Nakamura T, Saito T (1997) Biological significance of milk oligosaccharides-Homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among mammalian species. Milk Science 46:211–220Google Scholar
  8. Urashima T, Yamashita T, Nakamura T, Arai I, Saito T, Derocher AE, Wiig, O (2000) Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Biochim Biophys Acta 1475:395–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Urashima T, Saito T, Nakamura T, Messer M (2001) Oligosaccharides of milk and colostrums in nonhuman mammals. Glycoconj J 18:357–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tadasu Urashima
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Food HygieneObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineObihiro, HokkaidoJapan

Personalised recommendations