Transfer of Foreign DNA into Aquatic Animals by Electroporation
Aquatic animals into which a foreign gene or a non-coding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and integrated in their genomes are called transgenic aquatic animals. Since 1985, a wide range of transgenic aquatic animal species have been produced mainly by microinjecting or electroporating homologous or heterologous transgenes into newly fertilized or unfertilized eggs and sometimes, sperm (for review, Chen and Powers, 1990; Hackett, 1993; Chiou et al., 2005). To produce a desired transgenic aquatic animal species, several factors should be considered. First, could the reproduction cycle of the aquatic animal species under consideration be completed in captivity? Second, a specific gene construct must be designed based on the special requirements of each study. For example, the gene construct may contain an open reading frame encoding a gene product of interest and regulatory elements that regulate the expression of the gene in a temporal, spatial and/or devel opmental manner. Third, an efficient method for delivering the transgene construct needs to be identified. Fourth, since not all instances of gene transfer are efficient, a screening method must be adopted for identifying transgenic individuals.
Since the development of the first transgenic fish in the mid 1980s, techniques of producing transgenic aquatic animals have improved tremendously. Among differ ent methods for delivering gene constructs into aquatic animals, the electroporation method is considered to be the simplest but efficient method of gene delivery. In recent years, transgenic aquatic animals have been produced as valuable models for different disciplines of biological research as well as human disease modeling. In addition, transgenic technology has been used to produce aquatic animal species with beneficial traits, such as enhanced somatic growth and disease resistance, for aquaculture application. In this chapter, we will review the progress of producing transgenic aquatic animals by the electroporation method.
KeywordsRainbow Trout Zebrafish Embryo Aquatic Animal Transgenic Fish Zebrafish Brain
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Buono, R.J., Linser, P.J. (1992) Transient expression of RSVCAT in transgenic zebrafish made by electroporation. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1, 271–275.Google Scholar
- Chiou, Pinwen, P., Khoo, J., Chun, C.Z., Chen, T.T. (2005) Transgenic fish. In “Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine” (Meyer, R.A. ed) Vol. 14, 2nd edition, pp. 473–503. Wiley-VCH, KgA, Weinheim.Google Scholar
- Hackett, P.B. (1993) The molecular biology of transgenic fish. In “Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fish” (Hochachka, P. and Mommsen, T. eds) Vol. 2, pp. 207–240. Elesevier Science, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Lu, J.K., Christman, C.L., Andrisani, O.M., Dixon, J.E., Chen, T.T. (1992) Integration, expression and germ-line transmission of foreign growth hormone genes in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Mol Marine Biol Biotechnol 1, 380–389.Google Scholar
- Neumann, E., Schaefer-Ridder, M., Wang, Y., Hofschneider, P.H. (1982) Gene transfer into mouse lyoma cells by electroporation in high electric fields. EMBO J 1, 841–845.Google Scholar
- Powers, D.A., Herford, L., Cole, T., Creech, K., Chen, T.T., Lin, C.M., Kight, K., Dunham, R.A. (1992) Electroporation: a method for transferring genes into gamates of zebrafish (Brachydanio reio), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1, 301–308.Google Scholar
- Shigekawa, K., Dower, W.J. (1988) Electroporation of eukaryotes and prokaryotes: a general approach to introduction of macromolecules into cells. Biotechniwues 6, 742–751.Google Scholar
- Symonds, J.E., Walker, S.P., Sin, F.Y.T. (1994) Development of mass gene transfer method in chinool salmon: optimization of gene transfer by electroporated sperm. Mol Mar Biol Biotech 3, 104–111.Google Scholar
- Tseng, F.S., Lio, I.C., Tsai, H.J. (1994) Introducing the exogenous growth hormone cDNA into loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) eggs via electroporated sperm as carrier. In “3rd International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Tromso, Norway” abstract pp. 71.Google Scholar