In patients with incomplete lateralization of thoracic and visceral organs, the atrial appendages are also not lateralized. Thus, in the vast majority of these patients both atrial appendages present with similar internal and external morphology, characteristic of either the right or the left atrial appendage. Atrial isomerism is the designation for hearts with bilaterally right atrial appendages (Fig. 3.27.1) or bilaterally left atrial appendages.


Atrial Appendage Left Pulmonary Artery Single Ventricle Situs Inversus Azygos Vein 
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