Anomalous systemic venous connections


An anomalous systemic venous connection is present in 8 to 10% of patients with con genital heart defects. The most frequent congenital anomaly of systemic venous return is the presence of a persistent left superior vena cava (Figs. 3.1.1 and 3.1.2), in most of the cases connected to the coronary sinus, but sometimes draining into the left atrium. The persistent left superior vena cava can be associated with the absence of the right superior vena cava (Fig. 3.1.3). The strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass can be completely different if the persistent left superior vena cava is associated with the presence or the absence of the innominate vein and/or right superior vena cava.


Left Atrium Inferior Vena Coronary Sinus Superior Vena Constrictive Pericarditis 
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