International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards

  • Rudolf Avenhaus
  • Jack T. Markin
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 26)


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is unique among international organizations in its use of on-site inspections to verify that states are in compliance with the terms of a negotiated agreement. These inspections are applied in 52 countries at nearly 500 facilities to assure that uses of nuclear materials and facilities are limited to peaceful purposes. The legal basis for the inspections is agreements between the IAEA and the state, concluded in the framework of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, for full scope safeguards on all nuclear materials. In addition, other more limited agreements for safeguards on a portion of a state’s nuclear material are also concluded with states not party to the treaty. In either case, the role of the IAEA is to verify compliance with the terms of these agreements by auditing facility operating records and reports submitted to the IAEA by the state, by independent measurement of nuclear materials by IAEA inspectors, and by emplacement of surveillance devices to monitor facility operations in the inspector’s absence.


International Atomic Energy Agency Fuel Assembly Nuclear Material Spend Fuel Inspection Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arkin, H. (1974): Handbook of Sampling for Auditing and Accounting McGraw Hill Book Company, 2nd Ed., p. 164, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Avenhaus, R. and Jaech, J. (1981): On Subdividing Material Balances in Time and/or Space J. Inst. Nucl. Management 4 (3), pp. 24–33Google Scholar
  3. Avenhaus, R. (1986): Safeguards Systems Analysis. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Fichtner, J. (1985): Statistische Tests zur Abschreckung von Fehl verhalten - Eine mathematische Analyse von Überwachungssystemen mit Anwendungen. Dissertation, Universität der Bundeswehr MünchenGoogle Scholar
  5. Fischer, D.A.V. (1982): Safeguards - A Model for General Arms Control? IAEA Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 45–49Google Scholar
  6. Häfele, W. (1980): Verifikationssysteme bei einer ausgewogenen Verminderung von Streitkräften in Mitteleuropa. Europa Archiv, Folge 6, pp. 189–200Google Scholar
  7. IAEA (1968): The Agency’s Safeguards System (1965, as provisionally extended in 1966 and 1968). INF/CIRC/Rev. 2. ViennaGoogle Scholar
  8. IAEA (1972): The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. INF/CIRC/153 ( Corrected ), International Atomic Energy Agency. WienGoogle Scholar
  9. IAEA (1984): Safeguards Techniques and Equipment, INF/5. WienGoogle Scholar
  10. Lehmann, E.L. (1959): Testing Statistical Hypotheses. New YorkMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Rogers, D.R., Ed. (1983): Handbook of Nuclear Safeguards Measurement Methods. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  12. Stewart, K.B. (1970): A Cost-Effectiveness Approach to Inventory Verification. Proceedings of the IAEA Symposium Safeguards Techniques in Karlsruhe, Vol. II, Vienna, pp. 387–409Google Scholar
  13. Wittekindt, R. (1984): Verification of MBRF-Agreements - A Systems Analysis. In: Quantitative Assessments in Arms Control ( Avenhaus and Huber, Eds.). New York, pp. 383–411Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Avenhaus
    • 1
  • Jack T. Markin
    • 2
  1. 1.Federal Armed Forces University MunichGermany
  2. 2.Los Alamos National LaboratoryUSA

Personalised recommendations