Advertisement

The Pathogenesis of HIV Infections of the Brain

  • R. T. Johnson
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 202)

Abstract

Last summer, the World Health Organization estimated that over 13 million persons worldwide were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Merson 1993). From prospective studies, it is reasonable to assume that the majority of these persons already have infection of the central nervous system; therefore, HIV is the most prevalent viral infection of the nervous system. It also can be assumed that during the next decade over 50% of these patients will develop disabling neurological diseases (dementia with HIV encephalopathy, paraparesis with vacuolar myelopathy, and disabling pain with predominantly sensory neuropathy); therefore, neurological complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) will be among the commonest neurological diseases of the future.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome Vacuolar Myelopathy Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Belman AL, Diamond G, Dickson D, Horoupian D, Llena J, Lantos G, Rubinstein A (1988) Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neurologic syndromes. Am J Dis Child 142: 29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blumberg BM, Epstein LG, Saito Y, Chen D, Sharer LR, Anand R (1992) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef quasispecies in pathological tissue. J Virol 66: 5256–5264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenneman DE, Weatbrook GL, Fitzgerald SP, Ennìst DL, Elkins KL, Ruff MR, Pert CB (1988) Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Nature 335: 639–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carne CA, Tedder RS, Smith A, Sutherland S, Elkington SG, Daly HM, Preston FE, Craske J (1985) Acute encephalopathy coincident with seroconversion for anti-HTLV Ill. Lancet 2: 1206–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Centers for Disease Control (1981a) Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia among homo-sexual men—New York City and California. Morb Mort Wkl Rep 30: 305–308Google Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control (1981 b) Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles. Morb Mort Wkl Rep 30: 250–252Google Scholar
  7. Cornblath DR, McArthur JC, Kennedy PGE, Witte AS, Griffin JW (1987) Inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type Ill infection. Ann Neurol 21: 32–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein LG, Sharer LR, Joshi W, Fojas MM, Koenigsberger MR, Oleske JM (1985) Progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 17: 488–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glass JD, Wesselingh SL, Seines OA, McArthur JC (1993) Clinical-neuropathologic correlation in HIV- associated dementia. Neurology 43: 2230–2237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Goethe KE, Mitchell JE, Marshall DW, Brey RL, Cahill WT, Leger GD, Hoy LJ, Boswell RN (1989) Neuropsychological and neurological function of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive asymptomatic individuals. Arch Neurol 46: 129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gonda MA, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Clements JE, Narayan O, Gilden RV (1985) Sequence homology and morphologic similarity of HTLV-III and visna virus, a pathogenic lentivirus. Science 227: 173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Griffin JW, Crawford TO, Tyor WR, Glass JD, Price DL, Cornblath DR, McArthur JC (1995) Sensory neuropathy in AIDS. I. Neuropathology. Brain (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Heyes MP, Brew BJ, Martin A, Price RW, Salazar AM, Sidtis JJ, Yergey JA, Mouradian MM, Sadler AE, Keilp J, Rubinow D, Markey SP (1991) Quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurologic status. Ann Neurol 29: 202–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho DD, Rota TR, Schooley RT, Kaplan JC, Allan JD, Groopman JE, Resnick L, Felnsenstein D, Andrews CA, Hirsch MS (1985) Isolation of HTLV-III from cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissues of patients with neurologic syndromes related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 313: 1493–1497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, Hollander H, Mills J, Kaminsky L (1985) Isolation of AIDS-associated retro-viruses from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet 2: 586–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lipton SA (1991) HIV-related neurotoxicity. Brian Pathol 1: 193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Masliah E, Ge N, Morey M, Deteresa R, Terry RD, Wiley CA (1992) Cortical dendritic pathology in human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Lab Invest 66: 285–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McArthur JC (1987) Neurologic manifestations of AIDS. Medicine 66: 407–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McArthur JC, Cohen BA, Farzedegan H, Cornblath DR, Seines OA, Ostrow D, Johnson RT, Phair J, Polk BF (1988) Cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in homosexual men with and without neuro-psychiatric findings. Ann Neurol 23 (Suppl): S34–S37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McArthur JC, Cohen BA, Seines OA, Kumar AJ, Cooper K, McArthur JH, Soucy G, Cornblath DC, Chmiel JS, Wang M-C, Starkey DL, Ginzburg H, Ostrow DG, Johnson RT, Phair JP, Polk BF (1989) Low prevalence of neurological and neuropsychological abnormalities in otherwise healthy HIV-1infected individuals: results from the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Ann Neurol 26: 601–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McArthur JC, Hoover DR, Bacellar H, Miller EN, Cohen BA, Becker JT, Graham NMH, McArthur JH, Seines OA, Jacobson LP, Visscher BR, Concha M, Saah A (1993) Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Neurology 43: 2245–2252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Merson MH (1993) Slowing the spread of HIV: agenda for the 1990s. Science 260: 1266–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moses AV, Bloom FE, Pauza CD, Nelson JA (1993) Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human brain capillary endothelial cells occurs via a CD4/galactosylceramide-independent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 1 0474–1 047 8Google Scholar
  24. Nielsen SL, Petito CK, Urmacher CD, Posner JB (1984) Subacute encephalitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a postmortem study. Am J Clin Pathol 82: 678–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Nuovo GJ, Gallery F, MacConnell P, Braun A (1994) In situ detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids and tumor necrosis factor-a RNA in the central nervous system. Am J Pathol 144: 659–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Pizzo PA, Eddy J, Falloon J, Balis FM, Murphy RF, Moss H, Wolter P, Brouwers P, Jarosinski P, Rubin M, Broder S, Yarchoan R, Brunetti A, Maha M, Nusinoff-Lehrman S, Poplack DG (1988) Effect of continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine ( AZT) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med 319: 889–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Power C, McArthur JC, Johnson RT, Griffin DE, Glass JD, Perryman S, Chesebro B (1994) Distinct brain-derived HIV-1 envelope sequences associated with HIV dementia. J Virol 68: 4643–4649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Resnick L, DiMarzo-Veronese F, Schüpbach J, Tourtellotte WW, Ho DD, Müller F, Shapshak P, Vogt M, Groopman JE, Markham PD, Gallo RC (1985) Intra-blood-brain-barrier synthesis of HTLV-III-specific IgG in patients with neurologic symptoms associated with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. N Engl J Med 313: 1498–1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Royal W III, Updike M, Seines OA, Procter TV, Nance-Sproson L, Solomon L, Vlahov D, McArthur JC (1991) HIV-1 infection and nervous system abnormalities among a cohort of intravenous drug users. Neurology 41: 1905–1910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sabatier J-M, Vives E, Mabrouk K, Benjouad A, Rochat H, Duval A, Hue B, Bahraoui E (1991) Evidence for neurotoxic activity of tat from human immunodeficiency virus type I. J Virol 65: 961–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Saito Y, Sharer LR, Epstein LG, Michaels J, Mintz M, Louder M, Golding K, Cvetkovich TA, Blumberg BM (1994) Overexpression of nef as a marker for restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes in postmortem pediatric central nervous tissues Neurology 44: 474–481Google Scholar
  32. Schmitt FA, Bigley JW, McKinnis R, Logue PE, Evans RW, Drucker JL, AZT Collaborative Working Group (1988) Neuropsychological outcome of zidovudine ( AZT) treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. N Engl J Med 319: 1573–1578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seines OA, Miller E, McArthur JC, Gordon B, Munoz A, Sheridan K, Fox R, Saah AJ (1990) HIV-1 infection: no evidence of cognitive decline during the asymptomatic stages. Neurology 40: 204–208Google Scholar
  34. Shaw GM, Harper ME, Hahn BH, Epstein LG, Gajdusek DC, Price RW, Navia BA, Petito CK, O’Hara CJ, Cho E-S, Oleske JM, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC (1985) HTLV-III infection in brains of children and adults with AIDS encephalopathy. Science 227: 177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Snider WD, Simpson DM, Nielsen S, Gold JWM, Metroka CE, Posner JB (1983) Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: analysis of 50 patients. Ann Neurol 14: 403–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tornatore C, Chandra R, Berger JR, Major EO (1994) HIV-1 infection of subcortical astrocytes in the pediatric central nervous system. Neurology 44: 481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tyor WR, Glass JD, Griffin JW, Becker PS, McArthur JC, Bezman L, Griffin DE (1992) Cytokine expression in the brain during the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 31: 349–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wesselingh SL, Power C, Glass JD, Tyor WR, McArthur JC, Farber JM, Griffin JW, Griffin DE (1993) Intracerebral cytokine mRNA expression in AIDS dementia. Ann Neurol 33: 576–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. T. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.The Departments of Neurology, Molecular Biology and Genetics, and NeuroscienceThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations