Computational Modelling of Fragmentation and Penetration of Ceramic Plates
The development of improved ballistic armor and projectiles is an intensive and ever-continuing activity. Numerical simulations constitute a potentially useful tool for the prediction of the performance of armor/projectile designs (see Anderson and Bodner  for an overview). A variety of ceramics are presently being evaluated as candidate armor materials, as they possess an attractive combination of high hardnesses and low densities. However, brittleness can result in catastrophic failure in the form of extensive cracking, fragmentation and comminution. These failure mechanisms have been documented experimentally (e. g., Shockey et al. , Woodward et al. ), and modelled variously (e. g., Walter , Rajendran ). Current approaches are largely based on continuum theories of elastic damage and strength which smear out the evolving microstructures. In addition, models of fragmentation have commonly been based on simple energy balance concepts (Grady and Kipp ).
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