Immunologic Subclassification of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood and Prognosis (Modified BFM Protocol)

  • F. Zintl
  • R. Häfer
Conference paper
Part of the Haematology and Blood Transfusion / Hämatologie und Bluttransfusion book series (HAEMATOLOGY, volume 32)


Acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) in childhood are clonal proliferations of lymphoid cells. It is now possible precisely to define stages of human lymphocyte differentiation using more traditional cell markers such as surface membrane immunoglobulin (SIg), sheep erythrocyte receptor (E), and cytochemical stains or highly specific monoclonal antibodies. The application of these immunologic methods to the study of ALL has further confirmed the heterogeneous nature of this disease. There appear to be clinical differences among the immunologic subtypes. It is as yet unclear whether T-cell disease is an independent prognostic variable. In the past B-cell ALL was characterized by an extremely poor prognosis. Relatively little information is available regarding the prognosis of the various stages of pre-B-ALL and T- ALL.


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Clonal Proliferation High White Blood Cell Count Independent Prognostic Variable Product Limit Estimate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Langermann HJ, Henze G, Wulf M, Riehm H (1982) Abschätzung der Tumorzellmasse bei der akuten lymphoblastischen Leukämie im Kindealter: prognostische Bedeutung und praktische Anwendung. Klin Pädiatr 194: 209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zintl F, Malke H, Plenert W (1985) Clinical experiences with a modified BFM protocol in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In: Neth R, Gallo RC, Greaves MF, Janka G (eds) Modern trends in human leukemia, vol VI. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 84–89Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Riehm H, Henze G, Langermann HJ (1981) Multizentrische Therapiestudie BFM 81 zur Behandlung der akuten lymphoblastischen Leukämie im Kindes-und Jugendalter. StudienprotokollGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Müller-Weihrich S, Henze G, Schwarze EW, Budde M, Riehm H (1986) Childhood Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma strategies for diagnosis and therapy. In: Riehm H (ed) Malignant neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. Karger, Basel, pp 167–186 (Monogr. Paediatr, vol 18.)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaplan EL, Meier P (1970) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53: 457–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crist WM, Grossi CE, Pullen J, Cooper MD (1985) Immunologic markers in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol 12: 105–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernstein I, Kersey J, Seeger R, Andrews R (1985) Immunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in childhood malignancies. Pediatr Clin North Am 32: 575–599PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Zintl
    • 1
  • R. Häfer
    • 1
  1. 1.Abt. Hämatologie, Onkologie und ImmunologieUniversitäts-Kinderklinik JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations