Exoskeletons as Man-Machine Interface Systems for Teleoperation and Interaction in Virtual Environments

  • Massimo Bergamasco
  • Antonio Frisoli
  • Carlo Alberto Avizzano
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 31)


Since the beginning of teleoperation, exoskeleton systems have been considered as man-machine interfaces at the master level. Exoskeletons are robotics systems, that can be put on by the human operator, with a kinematic structure similar to that of operator’s upper or lower limbs. They have a twofold functionality: a) to record the movement at the level of human limb, b) to generate forces at the points of attachment with the human limb. The first examples of exoskeletons can be traced back to systems for the arm and the hand specifically designed for replicating grasping and contact forces to the operator. Nowadays exoskeleton systems are successfully employed also as body extenders for human power augmentation and rehabilitation. This chapter describes different types of exoskeleton systems from the point of view of mechanical and control design, and presents different examples of applications from the current state of the art.


Virtual Environment Robotic System Joint Torque Force Feedback Haptic Interface 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimo Bergamasco
    • 1
  • Antonio Frisoli
    • 1
  • Carlo Alberto Avizzano
    • 1
  1. 1.Scuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPERCROPisaItaly

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