Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (MAHs) Induced Toxicity in Drosophila: How Close How Far?
- 908 Downloads
Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) are being used as individual chemicals or as in mixtures of two or more chemicals in several industrial and household processes across the world. Among MAHs, the most common chemicals are benzene, toluene and xylene, and they are also known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), among them benzene categorised as highly toxic chemical and also listed as human carcinogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene cause cytotoxicity to a nontarget organism-like Drosophila melanogaster as an individual (benzene or toluene or xylene)/in mixture (benzene-toluene-xylene or benzene-toluene or benzene-xylene). In this chapter, several cellular, biochemical and molecular approaches were used to evaluate cellular toxicity due to MAHs like benzene, toluene and xylene using Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative to animal. We also judged variable cytotoxicity patterns of MAHs when they are exposed individually or in a mixture of two/three chemicals. An antagonistic effect of xylene and toluene on benzene toxicity and additive/synergistic effect of xylene on toluene-induced toxicity were evident in Drosophila. This study shows that co-exposure of benzene-toluene-xylene causes reduced cellular and organismal toxicity as compared to individual test chemical on Drosophila melanogaster.
KeywordsMonocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) Benzene Toluene and xylene Cytotoxicity Heat shock proteins ROS generation
- Ahmed HH, Metwally FM, Rashad HM (2009) Toxicity of solvents exposure on the neuroendocrine system in rats: role of amino acids supplementation. Toxic Solvents Rep Opin 1:66e83Google Scholar
- Ayalogu OE, Igboh NM, Dede EB (2001) Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats exposed to petroleum samples (gasoline, kerosene, and crude petroleum). J Appl Sci Environ Manage 5:97e100Google Scholar
- Benson JM, Gigliotti AP, March TH, Barr EB, Tibbetts BM, Skipper BJ, Clark CR, Twerdok L (2011) Chronic carcinogenicity of gasoline vapour condensate (GVC) and GVC containing methyl tertiary-butyl ether in f344 rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 74:638e57Google Scholar
- Bruckner JV, Warren DA (2001) Toxic effects of solvents and vapors. In: Klaassen CD (ed) Casarette and Doulls toxicology the basic science of poisons, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, p 869e944Google Scholar
- Dogru O, Celkan T, Demir T (2007) Hematological and biochemical changes in volatile substance abusing street children in Istanbul. Turk J Hematol 24:52e6Google Scholar
- Kozel N, Sloboda Z, De La Rosa M (eds) (1995) Epidemiology of inhalant abuse: an international perspective. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. NIDA Res. Mon. 14Google Scholar
- Perigo JF, Prado C (2005) Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations. Ann Occup Hyg 49(233e):40Google Scholar
- US EPA 1996 Priority pollutants, code of federal regulations. Title 40; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Part 423, App. A (chapter 1)Google Scholar
- Weaver CV, Liu SP, Lu JF, Lin BS (2007) The effects of benzene exposure on apoptosisin epithelial lung cells: localization by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the immunocytochemical localization of apoptosis-related gene products. Cell Biol Toxicol 23:201–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar