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Epidemiology of Central Nervous System Fungal Infections

  • Sanjeet Singh DadwalEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) of the central nervous system (CNS) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of CNS IFI is highly variable, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The burden of IFI has been increasing with the increasing numbers of at-risk population, opportunistic fungi in the immunocompromised patients with disseminated disease, post-neurosurgical procedures, implantable devices, spread from contiguous site (sinuses), and environmental exposures in the context of endemic fungi. However, an accurate measure of the CNS disease burden is not known with the exception of cryptococcal infection. The spectrum of the CNS IFI ranges from meningitis and meningoencephalitis to the parenchymal involvement with brain abscesses.

Keywords

Central nervous system Invasive fungal infection Epidemiology Meningitis Brain abscess 

Abbreviations

CARD9

Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 deficiency

CGD

Chronic granulomatous disease

CNS

Central nervous system

GvHD

Graft-versus-host disease

HCT

Hematopoietic cell transplantation

HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ICU

Intensive care unit

IFI

Invasive fungal infection

SOT

Solid organ transplantation

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseaseCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarteUSA

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