Blastomycosis and Phaeohyphomycosis
The incidence of the mycoses affecting the central nervous system has increased in recent years. These mycoses occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals and are caused by primary fungi (yeasts and filamentous fungi). Among these fungi, Blastomyces spp. and phaeoid fungi stand out, which are characterized by reaching the CNS through hematogenous dissemination or neurotropism. The mortality of patients with CNS infection caused by these fungi is high, because it is difficult to make a specific diagnosis opportunely. The initial treatment of these mycoses is amphotericin B, although many patients may require lifetime treatment with some azole antifungal to avoid relapses. Therefore, these infections require an opportune and precise diagnosis, as well as careful treatment strategies to ensure the proper management of patients. This chapter presents a review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of CNS infections caused by Blastomyces spp. and phaeoid fungi.
KeywordsBlastomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis Blastomyces spp. Phaeoid fungi SNC Meningitis Brain abscess Amphotericin B Azole antifungals
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Central nervous system
Gomori methenamine silver
Human immunodeficiency virus
Polymerase chain reaction
United States of America
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