Effects of Opioids

  • Doris H. Clouet


The introduction of narcotic analgesic drugs into animals including man at suitable dosage produces a myriad of pharmacological responses involving almost every tissue in the body: gut motility is decreased, respiratory rate and blood pressure are decreased, diuresis is slowed, impulse flow in sympathetic ganglia is decreased, ACTH release from the pituitary gland is decreased, etc. The central nervous system is the site at which most of these responses are initiated: (1) the vegetative effects on circulation and respiration are controlled in the medulla; (2) the pituitary responses are mediated by specific nuclei in the hypothalamus or by neurohormones in the pituitary itself; (3) pain responses are mediated via regulation of pain pathways in the brain and spinal cord; (4) target tissues of pituitary trophic hormones are regulated by these hormones; (5) behavioral responses are mediated by appropriate pathways in the central nervous system.


Adenylate Cyclase Chromaffin Cell Sympathetic Ganglion Opiate Receptor Pharmacological Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Clouet, D. H., 1975, Catecholamines and Behavior (A. J. Friedhof, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 167–196.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simon, E. J., Hiller, J. M., and Edelman, I., 1973, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 1947–1949.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Terenius, L., 1973, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. (Kbh.) 32: 317–320.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pert, C. B., and Snyder, S. H., 1973, Science 179: 1011–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hughes. J., Smith, T. W., Kosterlitz, H. W., Fothergill, L. A., Morgan, B. A., and Morris, H. R., 1975, Nature 258: 577–579.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradbury, A. F., Smythe, D. G., Snell, C. R., Birdsell, N. J. M., and Holme, E. C., 1976, Nature 260: 793–797.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martin, W. R., Eades, C. G., Thompson, J.H., Huppler, R. E., and Gilbert, P. E., 1976, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 197: 517–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kosterlitz, H. W., Lord, J. H., Patterson, S. J., and Waterfield, A. A., 1980, Br. J. Pharmacol. 68: 333–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cox, B. M., Opheim, K. E., Teschemacher, H., and Goldstein, A., 1975, Life Sci. 16: 1777–1782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kakidani, H., Furutani, Y., Takahashi, H., Noda, M., Morimoto, Y.. Hirose, T., Asai, M., Inayama, S., and Numa, S., 1982, Nature 298: 245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hökfelt, T., Elde, E., Johansson, O., Terenius, L., and Stein, L., 1977, Neurosci. Lett. 5: 25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bloom, F., Battenberg, E., Rossier, J., Ling. N., and Guillemin, R., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 1591–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Watson, S. J., Akil, H., Ghazarossian, V. E., and Goldstein, A.. 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 1260–1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weber, R., Roth, K. A., and Barchas, J. D., 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:30623066.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller, R. J., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1979, Neurochemical Mechanisms of Opiate and Endogenous (H. H. Loh and D. H. Ross, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 187–225.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wei, E., and Loh, H. H., 1976, Science 193: 1262–1265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Quirion, R., Hammer, R. P., Herkenham, M., and Pert, C. B., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 5881–5885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pasternak, G. W., Childers, S. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1980, Science 208: 514–5146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang, K.-J., Hazum, E., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 4459–4463.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood, P. L., Stotland, M., Richard, J. W.. and Rockham, A., 1980, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 215: 697–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Teal, J. J., and Holtzman, S. G., 1980, Ear. J. Pharmacol. 68: 1–10.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pearse, A. G. E., and Takor Takor, T., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38: 2288–2294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wood, P. L., 1982, Neuropharmacologv 21: 487–497.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blume, A. J., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 1713–1717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Simon, E. J., and Groth, J., 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 7: 2404–2407.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Giannini, T. L., Howells, R. D., Hiller, J. M.. and Simon, E. J., 1982, Life Sci. 31:1315(318.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simonds, W. F., Koski, G., Streaty, R. A., Hjelmeland, L. N., and Klee, W. A., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 4623–4627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clouet, D. H., Gold, G. J., and Iwatsubo, K., 1975. Br. J. Pharmacol. 54: 541–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clouet, D. H., and Iwatsubo, K., 1975, Life Sci. 17: 35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Minneman, K., and Iversen, L. L., 1976, Nature 262: 131–134.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sharma. S. L., Klee, W. A., and Nirenberg, M., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3365–3369.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koski, G., and Klee, W. A., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 4185–4189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deyo, S. N., Swift, R. M., and Miller, R. J., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 3006–3009.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Korf, J., Bunney, B. S., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1974, Ear. J. Pharmacol. 25: 165–169.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jhamandas, K., and Sutak, M., 1976, Br. J. Pharmacol. 58: 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Siggins, G. R., and Zieglgansberger, W., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 5253–5259.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moroni, F., Cheney, D. L., Peralta, E., and Costa, E., 1978, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 207: 870–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jaffe, J. H., and Clouet, D. H., 1981, Handbook of Biological Psychiatry, Part IV (H. M. VanPraag, M. A. Lader, O. J. Rafaelsen, and E. J. Sachar, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 277–308.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Iwatsubo, K., and Clouet. D. H., 1977, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 202: 429–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nestler, E. J.. and Greengard, P., 1982, Nature 296: 452–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rangel-Aldao, R., and Rosen, O. M., 1977, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 7140–7145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yamauchi, T., and Fujisawa, H., 1980, FEBS Lett. 116: 141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Callaghan, J. P., Williams, N., and Clouet, D. H., 1979, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 208: 96105.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Williams, N., and Clouet. D. H., 1982, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 220: 278–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brostrom, C. O., and Wolff, D. J., 1981, Biochem. Pharmacol. 30: 1395–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kuhn, M., O’Callaghan, J. P., Juskevich, J., and Lovernberg. W., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 4688–4691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Burke, B. E., and DeLorenzo, R. J., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70: 991–995.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hanbauer, I., Gimble, J., Sankaren, K., and Sherard, R., 1979, Neuropharmacologv 18:859864.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Clouet. D. H.. and Williams, N., 1982, Neurochem. Res. 7: 1135–1148.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Clouet, D. H., and Williams, N., 1982, Life Sci. 31: 2283–2286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ross. D. H., Lynn, S. C., and Cardenas, H. l. 1976, Life Sci. 18: 789–796.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yamamoto. H., Harris, R. A., Loh. H. H., and Way, E. L., 1978, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Titer. 205: 255–264.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kretz, R., Shapiro. E., and Kandell, E. R., 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 5430–5434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Desaiah, E., and Ho, 1. K., 1977, Biochem. Pharmacol. 26: 89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fujimoto, J. M.. 1971, Narcotic Drugs: Biochemical Pharmacology (D. H. Clouet, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 366–393.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Holaday, J. W., and Loh, H. H., 1979, Neurochemical Mechanisms of Opiate and Endorphins (H. H. Loh and D. H. Ross, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 277–258.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tache, Y., Lis, M., and Collu, R., 1977, Life Sci. 21: 840–846.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    George, R., and Lomax, P., 1972, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Drug Dependence (S. J. Mule and H. Brill, eds.). CRC Press, Cleveland. pp. 523–544.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lien, E. L., Fenichel, R. L., Garsky, V., Sarentakis. D., and Grant H. H., 1976. Life Sci. 19: 837–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Roy, A. K., and Ghosh, J. J., 1968, J. Neurochem. 16: 1–5.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    de Wied, D., Van Ree, J. M., and Dejong, W., 1974, Narcotics and the Hypothalamus (E. Zimmerman and R. George, eds.), Raven Press. New York, pp. 207–232.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Van Vugt, D. A., Bruni, J. F., Sylvester, P. W., Chen. H. T., Ieiri, T.. and Meites, J., 1979, Life Sci. 24: 2361–2368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Horita, A., Carino, M. A., and Chestnut. R. M., 1976. Psychopharmacologia 49: 57–62.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    deWied, D., 1976, Hosp. Pract. 16: 123–131.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mendelson, J. H., Ellingboe, J., Kuehnle, J. C., and Miller. N. K., 1980, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 214: 503–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Clouet, D. H.. and Ratner, M.. 1967, Brain Res. 4: 33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Clouet. D. H., and Iwatsubo, K., 1975, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 15: 49–71.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lee, N. M., Craves, F. B., and Stokes, K. B., 1979, Neurochemical Mechanisms of Opiates and Endorphins (H. H. Loh and D. H. Ross, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 521-539.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lal. H., 1975, Life Sci. 16: 483–495.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Parenti, M.. Gentleman, S., Olianis, M. C., and Neff, N. H., 1982, Neurochem. Res. 7: 483–495.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Koski, G.. and Klee, W. A., 1981. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 4185–4189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Glick, S. D., and Cox, R. D., 1977, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 42: 303–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aghajanian, G. K., 1978, Nature 276: 186–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Memo, M., Lovernberg, W., and Hanbauer, 1., 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:44564460.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Millan, M. J., Prezewlocki, R., Jerlica, M., Gramsch, C., Vollt, V., and Herz, A., 1981, Brain Res. 208: 325–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rossier, J., French, E., Rivier. C., Shibasaki, T., Guillemin, R., and Bloom, F. E., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 666–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Colt, E. W. D., Wardlaw, S. L., and Frantz. A. G., 1981, Life Sci. 28: 1637–1640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nakao, H., Nakai, Y., and Jingami, H., 1979, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 49: 838–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Oki, S., Nakai, Y., Nakao, K., and Imura, H., 1980, J. Clin. Endocrinol. vIetab. 50: 194–197.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wardlaw. S. L., and Frantz, A. G., 1979, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48: 176–180.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Emrich. H. M., Hollt, V., Bergman, M., Kissling, W., Schmid, V., Zerssen. D. V., and Herz, A., 1980, Neural Peptides and Neuronal Communication (E. Costa and M. Trabucchi, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 489–507.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nakai, Y., Nakao R., Oki, S., Imura. H., and Li, C. H., 1978, Life Sci. 23: 2293–2298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Csontos, K., Rust, M., Hollt, V., Maher, W., Kromer, W., and Teschemacher. H. J., 1979, Life Sci. 25: 835–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mains, R. E., and Eipper, B. A., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3014–3018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nakanishi, N., Inoue, A., Kita, T., Nakamura, M., Chang, A. C. Y., Cohen. S. N., and Numa, S., 1979, Nature 278: 423–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Miller, W. L., Johnson, L. K.. Baxter, J. D., and Roberts, J. L., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 5211–5215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Li, C. H.. 1979, Neurochemical Mechanisms of Opiate and Endorphins (H. H. Loh and D. H. Ross, eds.). Raven Press, New York, pp. 145–163.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hollt, V., and Bergman, M., 1982. Neuropharmacology 21: 147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hollt, V., Haarman, I., and Herz, A., 1981, J. Neurochem. 373: 619–626.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Simantov, R., and Snyder, S. H., 1976, Nature 262: 505–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bergstrom, L., and Terenius, L., 1979, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 60: 349–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Clouet, D. H., and Ratner, M., 1976, Opiates and Endogenous Opioid Peptides (H. W. Kosterlitz. ed.), Elsevier Press, Amsterdam. pp. 71–78.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sosa, R. P., McKnight. A. T., Hughes, J., and Kosterlitz, H. W., 1977, FEBS Lett. 84: 195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Noda, M.. Furutani, Y., Takahashi, H., Toyosato, M., Hirose, T. Inayama, S., Nakanishi, S., and Numa, H.. 1982, Nature 295: 202–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Noda, M., Teranishi, Y., Takahasi, H., Toyosato, M., Notake, M., Nakanishi, S., and Numa, H., 1982, Nature 297: 431–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tang, J., Yang. H.-Y., and Costa, E., 1982, Neuropharmacology 21: 596–600.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Höllt, V., 1981, Mod. Prob. Pharmacopsychiatry 17: 1–18.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hong, J. S., Yang, H.-Y., Gillen, J. C.. deGuilio, A. M., Fraith, W., and Costa, E., 1979, Brain Res. 160: 192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yang, H.-Y., Hexum, T., and Costa. E., 1980, Life Sci. 27: 1119–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Viveros, O. H., diLiberto, E., Hazum, E., and Chang. K. J., 1979, Mol. Pharmacol. 16: 1101 1108.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stern, A. S., Lewis, R. V.. Kimuar, S.. Rossier, J., Gerber, C. D., Brink, L., Stein, S., and Udenfriend, S., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 6680–6682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Inturrisi, C. E., Umans, J. G., Wolff, D., Stern, A. S., Lewis, R. V., Stern, S., and Udenfriend, S., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 5512–5514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gubler, W.. Kirpatrick, D. C.. Seeberg, P. H., Gage. L. P., and Udenfriend, S., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 5484–5487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Huang, W. Y., Chang, R. C. C., Kastin, A. J., Coy, D. H., and Schally, A. V., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 6177–6189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Govoni, S., Hanbauer, I., Hexum, T. D., Yang, H.-Y., Kelly, G. D., and Costa, E., 1981, Neuropharmacology 20: 639–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kumakura, K., Keroum, F., Guidotti, A., and Costa, E., 1980, Nature 283: 489–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Livett, B. G., Dean, D. M.. Whelan, L. G., Udenfriend, S., and Rossier, J., 1981, Nature 289: 317–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shanks, M. F., Clement-Jones, V., Lindsell, C. J., Mullen, P. E., Rees, L. H., and Besser, G. M., 1981, Brain Res. 212: 403–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wuster, M., Schultz, R., and Herz, A., 1981, Biochem. Pharmacol. 30: 1833–1887.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Goldstein, A., 1976, Science 193: 1081–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fischli, W., Goldstein, A., Hunkapillar, M. W., and Hood, L. E. 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 5435–5437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kangawa, K., Matsuo, H., and Igarashi, M., 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 96: 153–160.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Goldstein, A., Tachibana, S., Lowney, L.I., Hunkapillar, M. W., and Hood, L. E., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 6666–6670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Guillemin, R., Vargo, T. M., Rossier, J., Minik, S., Ling, N., Rivier, C., Vale, N., and Bloom, F. E., 1977, Science 197: 1367–1369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Demarest, K. T., and Moore, K. E., 1981, Life Sci. 28: 349–351.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ananth, J., Barbova, A., and Rustogi, R.. 1982, Endorphins and Opiate Antagonists in Psychiatric Research (N. S. Shah and A. G. Donald, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 427437.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Frederickson, R. C., and Norris. F. G.. 1976, Science 194: 440–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chesselet, M. F., Cheramy, A., Reisine, T. D., and Glowinski, J., 1981, Nature 291: 320–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pearse, A. G. E., 1977. Med. Biol. 55: 115–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Walsh, J. H., Wong, H. C., and Dockray, O. D., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38: 2315–2319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hökfelt, T., Elfvin, L. G., Schultzberg, M., Fuxe, K., Said, S. I., Mutt, V., and Goldstein, M.. 1977, Neuroscience 2: 885–893.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dockray, G. J., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38: 2295–2301.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doris H. Clouet
    • 1
  1. 1.New York State Division of Substance Abuse Services, Testing and Research Laboratory, and Department of PsychiatrySUNY Downstate Medical SchoolBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations