Living Structures

  • Adrian Bejan
  • Ibrahim Dincer
  • Sylvie Lorente
  • Antonio F. Miguel
  • A. Heitor Reis

Abstract

The development of complex cellular systems such as the vertebrates requires the availability of large amounts of oxygen for the metabolic needs of the cells. The respiratory and circulatory systems are the specialized and hierarchically organized flow systems that meet this need. The respiratory system carries oxygen from the air to the pulmonary veins, whereas in the circulatory system oxygen is carried by the blood and is delivered to the cells by the thinnest vessels, the capillaries. A countercurrent of oxygen and carbon dioxide crosses the capillary wall, such that carbon dioxide is extracted from the blood stream and is discharged from the lungs into the atmosphere during exhalation.

Keywords

Reflection Coefficient Capillary Wall Capillary Network Airway Wall Bronchial Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Bejan
    • 1
  • Ibrahim Dincer
    • 2
  • Sylvie Lorente
    • 3
  • Antonio F. Miguel
    • 4
  • A. Heitor Reis
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials ScienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.School of Manufacturing EngineeringUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  3. 3.Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Département de Génie CivilLaboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des ConstructionsToulouseFrance
  4. 4.Departamento de Fisica, Colegio Luis VerneyUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

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