Endometrial Neoplasia: Hyperplasia and Carcinoma

  • Robert J. Kurman
  • Henry J. Norris


In this chapter, the term endometrial neoplasia is used in a broad sense to refer to proliferative lesions of the endometrium and is not limited to lesions with a capacity for autonomous growth. Endometrial neoplasia, therefore, describes a spectrum of proliferative disease that constitutes both a morphologic and biologic continuum beginning with mild hyperplasia and ending with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. At either end of the spectrum the histologic diagnosis is relatively straightforward, but atypical hyperplasia, the nebulous carcinoma in situ (CIS), and low-grade adenocarcinoma comprise a group of borderline conditions that defy accurate histologic distinction into benign and malignant forms. Because the clinical profile, biochemical-endocrine features, response to exogenous hormones, and treatment of the various forms of this disease are closely related, the spectrum of lesions comprising endometrial neoplasia is considered together.


Endometrial Cancer Obstet Gynecol Endometrial Carcinoma Myometrial Invasion Endometrial Hyperplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aikawa M, Ng ABP (1973) Mixed (adenosquamous) carcinoma of the endometrium. Electron microscopic observations. Cancer 31: 385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Austin JH, MacMahon B (1969) Indicators of prognosis in carcinoma of the corpus uteri. Surg Gynecol Obstet 128: 1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aycock NR, Jollie WP, Dunn LJ (1979) An ultra-structural comparison of human endometrial adenocarcinoma with normal postmenopausal endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 53: 565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beck RP, Latour JPA (1963) Necropsy reports on 36 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 85: 307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beutler HK, Dockerty MB, Randall LM (1963) Precancerous lesions of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 86: 433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bolt HM, Gobel P (1972) Formation of estrogens from androgens by human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vitro. Horm Metab Res 4: 312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boronow RC (1976) Endometrial cancer: Not a benign disease. Obstet Gynecol 47: 630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boronow RC (1973) A fresh look at corpus cancer management. Obstet Gynecol 42: 448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buehl IA, Vellios F, Carter JE, Huber CP (1964) Carcinoma in situ of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 42: 594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bunker M (1959) The terminal findings in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 77: 530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Campbell PE, Barter RA (1961) The significance of atypical endometrial hyperplasia. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 68: 668CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cavazos F, Lucas FV (1973) Ultrastructure of the endometrium. In: Norris HT, Hertig AT, Abel MR (eds). The uterus. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins. p 136Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chamlian DL, Taylor HB (1970) Endometrial hyperplasia in young women. Obstet Gynecol 36: 659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chan L, O’Malley BW (1976) Mechanism of action of the sex steroid hormones. N Engl J Med 294: 1322, 1372, 1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheon HK (1969) Prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 34: 680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Civantos F, Rywlin AM (1972) Carcinomas with trophoblastic differentiation and secretion of chorionic go-nadotrophins. Cancer 29: 789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Creasman WT, McCarty KS Sr, Barton TK, McCarty KS Jr (1980) Clinical correlates of estrogen and progesterone-binding proteins in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 55: 363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cutler BS, Forbes AP, Ingersoll FM, Scully RE (1972) Endometrial carcinoma after stilbesterol therapy in gonadal dysgenesis. N Engl J Med 287: 628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dallenbach-Hellweg G (1964) Uber die schaum-zellen im stroma des endometriums: Vorkommen und his-tochemische befunde. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 338: 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DiSaia PJ, Creasman WT, Morrow CP, Kurman RJ Preliminary data, Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doll R, Muir C, Waterhouse J (eds) (1970) Cancer Incidence in five continents, Vol 2. Berlin, International Union Against Cancer, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Donaldson ES, van Nagell JR Jr, Purseil S, Gay EC, Mecker WR, Kashmiri R, Van de Voorde J (1980) Multiple biochemical markers in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Cancer 45: 948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dunn LJ, Merchant JA, Bradbury JT, Stone DB (1968) Glucose tolerance and endometrial cancer: A controlled study. Arch Intern Med 121: 246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Edman CD, MacDonald PC (1978) Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in ovulatory and anovulatory young women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 130: 456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elton NW (1942) Morphologic variations in adenocarcinoma of the fundus of the uterus, with reference to secretory activity and clinical interpretations. Am J Clin Pathol 12: 32Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Engle ET, Krakower C, Haagensen CD (1943) Estrogen administration to aged female monkeys with no resultant tumors. Cancer Res 3: 858Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Factor SM (1974) Papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with psammoma bodies. Arch Pathol 98: 201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fasske E, Morgenroth K, Theman H, Verhagen A (1965) Vegleichende elektronemikroskopishe Untersuchungen von Proliferationsphase glandular cystischer hy-perplasie und adenocarcinom der Schleimhaut des corpus uteri. Arch Gynaekol 200: 473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fechner RE (1980) Ultrastructure of endometrial stromal foam cells. Letter to editor. Am J Clin Pathol 73: 731Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fechner RE, Kaufman RH (1974) Endometrial adenocarcinoma in Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Cancer 34: 444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fechner RE, Bossart MI, Spjut HJ (1979) Ultra-structure of endometrial stromal foam cells. Am J Clin Pathol 72: 628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ferenczy A (1979) Recent advances in endometrial neoplasia. Exp Mol Pathol 31: 226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ferenczy A (1981) Morphological effects of exogenous gestagens on abnormal human endometrium. In: Dallenbach-Hellweg G (ed). Functional morphologic changes in female sex organs induced by exogenous hormones, p 101. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fluhmann CF (1928) Squamous epithelium in the endometrium in benign and malignant conditions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 46: 309Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frick HC, Munnell EW, Richart RM, Berger AP, and Lawry MF (1973) Carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 115: 663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fu YS, Parks PJ, Reagen JW, Wentz WB, Storaasli JP (1979) The ultrastructure and factors relating to survival of endometrial cancers. Am J Diag Gynecol Obstet 1: 55Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Glicksman AS, Rawson RW (1956) Diabetes and altered carbohydrate metabolism in patients with cancer. Cancer 9: 1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goldzieher JW (1973) Polycystic ovarian disease. Clin Obstet Gynecol 16: 82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Compel C (1971) Ultrastructure of endometrial carcinoma: Review of 14 cases. Cancer 28: 745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gordon J, Reagan JW, Finkle WD, Ziel HK (1977) Estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. An independent pathology review supporting original risk estimate. N Engl J Med 297: 570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gore H, Hertig AT (1966) Carcinoma in situ of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 94: 134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Graham J (1971) The value of preoperative or postoperative treatment by radium for carcinoma of the uterine body. Surg Gynecol Obstet 132: 855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gray LA, Robertson RW, Christopherson WM (1971) Atypical endometrial changes associated with carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2: 93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gray LA, Christopherson WM, Hoover RN (1977) Estrogens and endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 49: 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Greenwald P, Caputo TA, Wolfgang PE (1977) Endometrial cancer after menopausal use of estrogens. Obstet Gynecol 50: 239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gurpide E, Tseng L, Gusberg SB (1977) Estrogen metabolism in normal and neoplastic endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129: 809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gusberg SB (1976) The individual at high risk for endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126: 535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gusberg SB (1947) Precursors of corpus carcinoma. Estrogens and adenomatous hyperplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 54: 905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gusberg SB, Kaplan AL (1963) Precursors of corpus cancer. IV. Adenomatous hyperplasia as stage 0 carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 87: 662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gusberg SB, Moore DB, Martin F (1954) Precursors of corpus cancer. II. A clinical and pathological study of adenomatous hyperplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 68: 1472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Haenszel W, Kurihara M (1968) Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 40:43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hahnel R, Martin JD, Masters AM, Ratajczak T, Twaddle E (1979) Estrogen receptors and blood hormone levels in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 8: 209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hameed K, Morgan DA (1972) Papillary adenocarcinoma of endometrium with psammoma bodies: Histology and fine structure. Cancer 29: 1326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harris HR (1958) Foam cells in the stroma of carcinoma of the body of the uterus and uterine cervical polypi. J Clin Pathol 11: 19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hartman CG, Geshickter CF, Speert H (1941) Effects of continuous estrogen administration in very large doses. Anat Rec (Suppl. 2) 79: 31Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL (1980) In: Bennington JL (ed). Surgical pathology of the uterine corpus. Major problems in pathology. Philadelphia, London, Toronto, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Henriksen E (1975) The lymphatic dissemination in endometrial carcinoma. A study of 188 necropsies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Henzl MR, Smith RE, Boost G, Tyler ET (1972) Lysosomal concept of menstrual bleeding in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34: 860CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hertig AT, Gore H (1960) Tumors of the female sex organs. Part 2. Tumors of the vulva, vagina, and uterus. Washington DC, Armed Forces Institute of PathologyGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hertig AT, Sommers SC (1949) Genesis of endometrial carcinoma. I. Study of prior biopsies. Cancer 2: 946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hertig AT, Sommers SC, Bengloff H (1949) Genesis of endometrial carcinoma. III. Carcinoma in situ. Cancer 2: 964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Homesley HD, Boronow RC, Lewis JL Jr (1976) Treatment of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium at Memorial-James Ewing Hospitals, 1949–1965. Obstet Gynecol 47: 100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Horowitz KB, McGuire WL (1978) Estrogen control of progesterone receptor in human breast cancer. Correlation with nuclear processing of estrogen receptor. J Biol Chem 253: 2223Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Horwitz RI, Feinstein AR, Robboy SJ (1981) Evidence for “detection bias” in studies of estrogens and endometrial cancer. Am Fed Clin Res (in press)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hustin J (1970) Endometrial carcinoma and synthetic progestogens: Results of intrauterine treatment. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 77: 915CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hustin J (1978) Immunohistochemical demonstration of several tumour markers in neoplastic and preneoplastic states of the uterine mucosa. Gynecol Obstet Invest 9: 3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Janne O, Kauppila A, Kontula K, Syrjala P, Vihko R (1979) Female sex steroid receptors in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometrium. The relationship to serum steroid hormones and gonadotropins and changes during medroxyprogesterone acetate administration. Int J Cancer 24: 545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jenson EV, DeSombre ER, Jungblutt PW (1967) Estrogen receptors in hormone responsive tissues and tumors. In: Wissler RW, Dao TL, Wood S Jr (eds). Endogenous factors influencing host-tumor balance, p 15. Chicago, University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jenson EV, Brecher PI, Nomata M, Smith S, DeSombre ER (1975) Estrogen interaction with target tissues: Two step transfer of receptor to the nucleus. In: O’Malley BS, Hardman JG (eds.) Methods in enzymology, Vol XXXVI. New York, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jones HW III (1975) Treatment of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol Surv 30: 147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Judd HL, Davidson BJ, Frumar AM, Shamonki IM, Lagasse LD, Ballon SC (1980) Serum androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136: 859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Julian CG, Daikoku NH, Gillespie A (1977) Ade-noepidermoid and adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterus. A clinicopathologic study of 118 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128: 106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kanbour AI, Stock RJ (1978) Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the endometrium and fallopian tube as superficial extension of invasive cervical carcinoma. Cancer 42: 570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Katayama KP, Jones HW (1967) Chromosomes of atypical (adenomatous) hyperplasia and carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 97: 978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kay S (1974) Squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 61: 264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Keller D, Kempson RL, Levine G, McLennan C (1974) Management of the patient with early endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 33: 1108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kempson RL, Pokorny GE (1968) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in women aged forty and younger. Cancer 21: 650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kent SP (1960) Spontaneous and induced malignant neoplasms in monkeys. Ann NY Acad Sci 85: 819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    King, RJB, Mainwaring WIP (1974) Steroid cell interactions. Baltimore University Park PressGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kirtpatrick JB (1967) Pathogenesis of foam cell lesions in irradiated arteries. Am J Pathol 50: 291Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kistner RW, Griffiths CT, Craig JM (1965) Use of progestational agents in the management of endometrial cancer. Cancer 18: 1563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kjorstad KE, Orjaseter H (1977) Studies on carci-noembryonic antigen levels in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Cancer 40: 2953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Klemi PJ, Gronroos M, Rauramo L, Punnonen R (1980) Ultrastructural features of endometrial atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas and the plasma levels of estrogens. Gynecol Oncol 9: 162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kohorn EI (1976) Gestagens and endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 4: 398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Koller O (1964) Results of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the uterine body. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 15: 99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kraus FT (1973) Irradiation changes in the uterus. In: Norris HT, Hertig AT, Abell MR (eds). The uterus, p 457 Baltimore, William & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kurman RJ, Scully RE (1976) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. An analysis of 21 cases. Cancer 37: 872CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1981) Criteria for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia from well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Cancer (in press)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1980) Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Levine AJ (1969) Endometrial adenocarcinoma evaluated by histologic and functional criteria. Cancer 24: 229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Levy C, Robel P, Gautray JP, DeBrux J, Verma V, Descomps B, Baulieu EE (1980) Estradiol and progesterone receptors in human endometrium: Normal and abnormal menstrual cycles and early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136: 646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lewis BV, Stallworthy JA, Cowdell R (1970) Adenocarcinoma of the body of the uterus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 77: 343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liu CT (1972) A study of endometrial adenocarcinoma with emphasis on morphologically variant types. Am J Clin Pathol 57: 562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    LiVolsi VA (1977) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with psammoma bodies. Obstet Gynecol 50: 725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Longcope C, Pratt JH, Schneider SH, Fineberg SE (1978) Aromatization of androgens by muscle and adipose tissue in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lucas WE, Yen SSC (1979) A study of endocrine and metabolic variables in postmenopausal women with endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lynch HT, Krush AJ, Larsen AL (1967) Heredity and endometrial carcinoma. South Med J 60: 231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    MacDonald PC, Edman CD, Hemsell DL, Porter JC, Siiteri PK (1978) Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 130: 448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mack TM, Pike MC, Henderson BE, Pfeffer RI, Gerkins VR, Arthur M, Brown SE (1976) Estrogens and endometrial cancer in a retirement community. N Engl J Med 294: 1262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mahle A (1923) The morphological histology of adenocarcinoma of the body of the uterus in relation to longevity. Surg Gyencol Obstet 36: 385Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mansell H, Hertig AT (1955) Granulosa-theca cell tumors and endometrial carcinoma. A study of their relationship and a survey of 80 cases. Obstet Gynecol 6: 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Marrett LD, Elwood JM, Meigs JW, Flannery JT (1978) Recent trends in the incidence and mortality of cancer of the uterine corpus in Connecticut. Gynecol Oncol 6: 183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Masubuchi K, Nemoto H (1972) Epidemiologic studies on uterine cancer at Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Cancer 30: 268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    McBride JM (1959) Pre-menopausal cystic hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 66: 288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McCarty KS Jr, Barton TK, Fetter BF, Creasman WT, McCarty KS Sr (1979) Correlation of estrogen and progesterone receptors with histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 96: 171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    McDonald TW, Annegers JF, O’Fallon WM, Dockerty MB, Malkasian GD, Kurland LT (1977) Exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma: Case-control and incidence study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127: 572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Meissner WA, Sommers SC, Sherman G (1957) Endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma and endometriosis produced experimentally by estrogen. Cancer 10: 500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Melin JR, Wanner L, Schulz DM, Cassel EE (1979) Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 53: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Merriam JC Jr, Easterday CL, McKay DG, Hertig AT (1960) Experimental production of endometrial carcinoma in the rabbit. Obstet Gynecol 16: 253Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Monson RR, MacMahon B, Austin JH (1973) Postoperative irradiation in carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 31: 630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Morrow CP, DiSaia PJ, Townsend DE (1973) Current management of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 42: 399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Muechler EK, Flickinger GL, Mangan CE, Mikhail G (1975) Estradiol binding by human endometrial tissue. Gynecol Oncol 3: 244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nahhas WA, Lund CJ, Rudolph JH (1971) Carcinoma of the corpus uteri: A 10-year review of 225 patients. Obstet Gynecol 38: 564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ng ABP (1968) Mixed carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102: 506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ng ABP, Reagan JW (1970) Incidence and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma by histologic grade and extent. Obstet Gynecol 35: 437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ng ABP, Reagan JW, Storaasli JP, Wentz WB (1973) Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 59: 765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nilsson O (1962) Electron microscopy of the human endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res 22: 492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nilsson O, Kottmeier HL, Tillinger KG (1963) Some differences in the ultrastructure of normal and cancerous human uterine epithelium, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 42: 73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nimrod A, Ryan KJ (1975) Aromatization of androgens by human abdominal and breast fat tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40: 367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nordqvist SRB (1969) Hormonal responsiveness of human endometrial carcinoma studied in vitro and in vivo. Thesis. University of Lund, Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Norris HJ, Taylor HB (1968) Prognosis of granulosa-theca tumors of the ovary. Cancer 21: 255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Novak E, Rutledge F (1948) Atypical endometrial hyperplasia simulating adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 55: 46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Novak E, Yui E (1936) Relation of endometrial hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 32: 674Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Peterson EP (1968) Endometrial carcinoma in young women. A clinical profile. Obstet Gynecol 31: 702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pfeiffer CA, Allen E (1948) Attempts to produce cancer in Rhesus monkeys with carcinogenic hydrocarbons and estrogens. Cancer Res 8: 97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Piver MS (1966) Distant metastasis of adenoacan-thoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 96:1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Pokoly T (1970) A comparison of the clinical behavior of uterine adenocarcinoma and adenoacanthomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108: 1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Poulson HE, Taylor CW, Sobin LH (1975) Histologic typing of female genital tract tumors. Geneva, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Prem KA, Mensheha NM, McKelvey JL (1965) Operative treatment of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92: 16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ramzy I, Nisker JA (1979) Histologic study of ovaries from young women with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 71: 253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Reagen JW (1974) The changing nature of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2: 144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Reifenstein EC Jr (1974) The treatment of advanced endometrial cancer with hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Gynecol Oncol 2: 377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Richart RM, Ferenczy A (1974) Endometrial morphologic response to hormonal environment. Gynecol Oncol 2: 180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Robboy SJ, Bradley R (1979) Changing trends and prognostic features in endometrial cancer associated with exogenous estrogen therapy. Obstet Gynecol 54: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Roberts DWT (1961) Carcinoma of the body of the uterus at Chelsea Hospital for Women, 1943–1953. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 68: 132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rodriquez J, Sen KK, Seski JC, Menon M, Johnson JR, Menon KMJ (1979) Progesterone binding by human endometrial tissue during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle and by hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rome M, Brown JB, Mason T, Smith MA, Laverty C, Fortune D (1977) Oestrogen excretion and ovarian pathology in postmenopausal women with atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma and mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 84: 88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rorat E, Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1974) The ultrastructure of clear cell adenocarcinoma of endometrium. Cancer 33: 880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rosenwaks Z, Wentz AC, Jones GS, Urban MD, et al (1979) Endometrial pathology and estrogens. Obstet Gynecol 53: 403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Salazar OM, DePapp EW, Bonfiglio TA, Feldstein ML, Rubin P, Rudolph JH (1977) Adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. An entity with an inherent poor prognosis? Cancer 40: 119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Salazar OM, Feldstein ML, DePapp EW, et al (1977) Endometrial carcinoma: Analysis of failures with special emphasis on the use of initial preoperative external pelvic radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 1101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Salazar OM, Feldstein ML, DePapp EW, et al (1978) The management of clinical stage I endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 41: 1016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sall S, Sonnenblick B, Stone ML (1970) Factors affecting survival of patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 107: 116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Salm R (1962) Macrophages in endometrial lesions. J Pathol Bacteriol 83: 405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Salm R (1962) Mucin production of normal and abnormal endometrium. Arch Pathol 73: 30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schenker JG, Weinstein D, Okon E (1979) Estradiol and testosterone levels in the peripheral and ovarian circulations in patients with endometrial cancer. Cancer 44: 1809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schindler AE, Ebert A, Fredrich E (1972) Conversion of androstenedione to estrone by human fat tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 35: 627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sekiya S, Takeda B, Kikuchi Y, Sakaguchi S, Takamizawa H (1977) Morphologic and enzyme-cyto-chemical changes in uterine adenocarcinoma cells of a rat by direct application of progesterone in vitro. Gynecol Oncol 5: 5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Seppala M, Pihko H, Ruoslahti E (1975) Carcino-embryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein in malignant tumors of the female genital tract. Cancer 35: 1377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Silverberg SG, De Giorgi LS (1973) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: Clinical, pathologic, and ultrastructural findings. Cancer 31: 1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Silverberg SG, Makowski EL (1975) Endometrial carcinoma in young women taking oral contraceptive agents. Obstet Gynecol 46: 503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Silverberg SG, Bolin MG, De Giorgi LS (1972) Adenoacanthoma and mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium: A clinicopathologic study. Cancer 30: 1307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Silverberg SG, Makowski EL, and Roche WD (1977) Endometrial carcinoma in women under 40 years of age. Comparison of cases in oral contraceptive users and nonusers. Cancer 39: 592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Smith DC, Prentice R, Thompson DJ, Hermann WL (1975) Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 293: 1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sommers SC (1973) Carcinoma of the endometrium. In: Norris HJ, Hertig AT, Abel MR (eds). The uterus, p 276. Baltimore, Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Stumpf WE, Roth LJ (1966) High resolution autoradiography with dry mounted, freeze-dried frozen sections. Comparative study of six methods using diffusible compounds H-Estradiol and H-Mesobilirubinogen. J Histochem Cytochem 14: 274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sturdee DW, Wade-Evans T, Paterson MEL, Thorn M, Studd JWW (1978) Relations between bleeding pattern, endometrial histology, and oestrogen treatment in menopausal women. Br Med J 1: 1575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Suit HD, Gallagher HS (1964) Intact tumor cells in irradiated tissue. Arch Pathol 78: 648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Szekely DR, Weiss NS, Schweid AI (1978) Incidence of endometrial carcinoma in King County, Washington: A standardized histologic review: Brief communication. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Tavassoli F, Kraus FT (1978) Endometrial lesions in uteri resected for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Am J Clin Pathol 70: 770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Thrasher TV, Richart RM (1972) An ultrastructural comparison of endometrial adenocarcinoma and normal endometrium. Cancer 29: 1713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Tiltman AJ (1980) Mucinous carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 55: 244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Tseng L, Gurpide E (1972) Nuclear concentration of estradiol in superfused slices of human endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Tseng L, Gurpide E (1973) Effect of estrone and progesterone on the nuclear uptake of estradiol by slices of human endometrium. Endocrinology 93: 245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Tubiana M (1971) The kinetics of tumour cell proliferation and radiotherapy. Br J Radiol 44: 325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ueda G, Sato Y, Yamasaki M, et al (1978) Argyro-phil cell adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 6: 467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ueda G, Yamasaki M, Inoue M, Kurachi K (1979) A clinicopatholic study of endometrial carcinomas with argyrophil cells. Gynecol Oncol 7: 223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    van Nagell JR Jr, Donaldson ES, Wood EG, Sharkey RM, Goldenberg DM (1977) The prognostic significance of carcinoembryonic antigen in the plasma and tumors of patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128: 308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Vellios F (1974) Endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol 2: 152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wagner D, Richart RM, Terner JY (1967) Deoxyribonucleic acid content of presumed precursors of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 20: 2067CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Warren S (1961) The pathology of ionizing radiation. Springfield Ill, Charles C ThomasGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Way S (1954) The aetiology of carcinoma of the body of the uterus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 61: 46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Weiss NS, Szekely DR, Austin DF (1976) Increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the United States. N Engl J Med 294: 1259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wentz WB (1964) Effect of a progestational agent on endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 24: 370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wessel W (1965) Endometriale adenocarcinome verschiedener differenzierungsgrade vnd ihr stroma im elektronenmikroskopishen bild. Z Krebsforsch 66: 421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    White AJ, Buchsbaum HJ, Macasaet MA (1973) Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 41: 912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Wynder EL, Escher GC, Mantel N (1966) An epidemiological investigation of cancer of the endometrium. Cancer 19: 489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Yoonessi M, Anderson DG, Morley GW (1979) Endometrial carcinoma: Causes of death and sites of treatment failure. Cancer 43: 1944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Young PCM, Ehrlich CE, Cleary RE (1976) Progesterone binding in human endometrial carcinomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol 125: 353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Ziel HK, Finkle WD (1975) Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens. N Engl J Med 293: 1167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Kurman
  • Henry J. Norris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations