Lenses and Ultrasonic Imaging

  • H. W. Jones
  • C. J. Williams


The processes of image formation by acoustic lenses are discussed. First, the process of refraction in lens materials, which are relatively thin compared to the wavelength of sound, is commented upon. Some experimental results for lucite wedges are presented, and it is shown that spatial modulation of the refracted beam occurs because of thickness-related transmission effects.

The progress in theoretical aspects of lens design is discussed by reference to work relating to single refracting surfaces, Luneberg lenses, two and multiple layer lenses and multiple element lenses. The performance of various types of lenses are compared.

Some commentary is given on insertion losses and diffraction related effects. One possible effect of turbulence is discussed. Mention is made of aperture shading techniques.


Refractive Index Pulse Length Insertion Loss Ultrasonic Imaging Spherical Lens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Havlice, JJ6S G.S » Kino and C.F. Quate. Appi. Phys. Lett., 2_3? (1973), 581–583•Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Havlice, J.F. “Optical Imaging of Acoustic Waves—An Acoustic Microscope”. PhD Thesis, Stanford University, (1971).Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, M. Acoustical Holography, 6, (ed. N. Booth ), Plenum Press, New York, (1975), 671–687.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Folds, D.L. NSRDL-P 5216/3 (10. 70 ), (1971).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jones, C.H. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 59, 1, (1976), 74–85.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones, C.H., H.W. Jones, J.W. Kesner, C.J. Williams. (To be published.)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brekhovskikh, L.M. Waves in Layered Media. ( New York: Academic Press ), (1960).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tarnoczy, T. Ultrasonics, (1965), 115–127.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinsler, L.E., A.R. Frey. Fundamentals of Acoustics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1962).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Golis, M.J. Ieee Trans. S. and U, SU-15, (1968), 105–110.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roudebush, J.L. “An experimental Biconvex Liquid-Filled Acoustic Lens”, E. Eng. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 1969.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyles, C.A. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., (1965), 393–405.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Folds, D.L., D.H. Brown. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 43>, (1968), 560–565.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Born, M., E. Wolf. Principles of Optics. ( Oxford: Pergamon Press ), (1970)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kanevskii, I.N., B.S. Surikov. Sov. Phys.-Acoust., 17, (1971), 43–47.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luneberg, R.K. Mathematical Theory of Optics. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, (1944).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gutman, A.S. J. Appi. Phys., 25, (1954), 855–859.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown, J. Wireless Eng., 30, (1953), 250.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morgan, S.P. J. Appi. Phys., 29, (1958), 1358–1368.ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lord5 G. Ja Accoust. Soc. Am.s 45, (1969), 885–891»Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Toulis5 W.J. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 35, (1963), 286–292.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peeler, G.D.M., H.P. Coleman. I.R.E. Trans. Ant, and Prop., (1958)5 202–207.Google Scholar
  23. Webster, R.E. l.R.E. Trans. Ant, and Prop., (1958), 301–302.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toraldo di Francia, G. J. Appi. Phys., 32 (L), (1961), 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kanevskii, I.N. and B.S. Surikov. Sov. Phys.-Acoust., 16, (1971), 457–461.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Metelkina, R.V. and B. Surikov. Sov. Phys.-Acoust., 17, (1971). 138–139.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Folds, D,L. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 49_5 (1971), 1591–1595.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Folds, D.L. and J. Hanlin. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 58 (1975), 72–77.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Folds, D.L. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 5_3S (1973), 826–834.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jones, C.H. Private communication.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Toraldo Di Francia, G. Del Nuovo Cimento, Supplemento Al IX, Series IX, (1952), 426–438.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wild, J.P. Proc. Roy Soc. 286 A, (1965), 499–509.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Palmer, J.M. Lens Aberration Data, (New York: American Elsevier, 1971.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Jones
    • 1
  • C. J. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Acoustic GroupUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations