Vitamin D Adequacy: A Possible Relationship to Breast Cancer
- 108 Downloads
Low levels of dietary calcium and vitamin D, biochemically interrelated, increase the promoting action of high dietary fat on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in animal studies.
High dietary fat increases mammary epithelial cell proliferation, particularly the “hor-monally driven” hyperproliferation during breast growth and development in young animals. Increased dietary calcium (and probably vitamin D) lessens the increase of proliferation induced by high fat. These data, although limited, suggest that the maximum effect of diet (high fat increase, as well as calcium and vitamin D modulation) on eventual breast cancer may be during puberty, and adolescence, when the mammary gland is actively growing and developing.
An inverse epidemiological correlation has been developed between sunlight availability as a source of vitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the U.S. and Canada.
Current vitamin D and calcium dietary intake in the U.S. is far below the RDA in all female age groups, particularly for the elderly.
Reduction of breast cancer risk, and simultaneously osteoporosis, might be achieved by increasing dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D to RDA levels. This may be particularly applicable to females during puberty and adolescence.
KeywordsBreast Cancer Dietary Calcium Dietary Vitamin Mammary Carcinogenesis Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 9.Wynder, E.L., D.R Rose, and L.A. Cohen, Diet and breast cancer in causation and therapy, Cancer 58 (Suppl):1804 (1986).Google Scholar
- 11.Jones, D.Y., A. Schatzkin, S.B. Green, G. Block, L.A. Brinton, R.G. Ziegler, R. Hoover, and P.R. Taylor, Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. I. Followup Study, J. Natl. Cancer lnst. 79:465 (1987).Google Scholar
- 16.Ip, C, Fat and essential fatty acid in mammary carcinogenesis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45 (Suppl):218 (1987).Google Scholar
- 20.Carroll, K.K., E.A. Jacobson, L.A. Eckel, and H.L. Newmark, Calcium and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:206s (1991).Google Scholar
- 21.Carroll, K.K., L.A. Eckel, L.J. Fraher, J.V. Frei, and H.L. Newmark, Dietary calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in relation to mammary carcinogenesis, in: Calcium, Vitamin D, and Prevention of Colon Cancer, M. Lipkin, H.L. Newmark, and G. Kelloff, eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton (1991).Google Scholar
- 22.Newmark, H.L., M.H. Wargovich, and W.R. Bruce, Colon cancer and dietary fat, phosphates and calcium: a hypothesis, J. Natl. Cancer lnst. 72:1323 (1984).Google Scholar
- 23.Newmark, H.L., Calcium in cellular function, Triangle 28 (Suppl 1):9 (1989).Google Scholar
- 30.Khan, M., K. Yang, H. Newmark, R. Rivlin, and M. Lipkin, Mammary ductal epithelial cell hyperproliferation and hyperplasia induced by four components of a Western-style diet, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 34:554 (1993).Google Scholar
- 33.Garland, C.F. and F. Garland, The Calcium Connection, G.P. Putnam, New York (1988).Google Scholar
- 34.Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition, National Academy Press, Washington, pp 92-98 (1989).Google Scholar
- 37.Omdahl, J.L., P.J. Garry, L.A. Hensaker, W.C. Hunt, and J.S. Goodwin, Nutritional status in a healthy elderly population: vitamin D, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36:1125 (1982).Google Scholar
- 40.Lore, F., G. DiCairano, and G. DiPerri, Vitamin D status in the extreme age of life, Ann. Med. Interne. (Paris) 137:209 (1986).Google Scholar