Gases as Chemical Messengers in the Carotid Body

Role of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide in Chemoreception
  • Nanduri R. Prabhakar
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 393)

Abstract

Until recently, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) were thought to be environmental pollutants that are harmful to the body. It is now well established that mammalian cells not only synthesize NO and CO, but also use them as chemical messengers in various physiological systems (9). Recent studies (7,8,12,13) suggest that NO and CO are produced within the carotid body and they may have important roles in oxygen chemoreception. The purpose of this article is to review briefly the significance of NO and CO as chemical messengers in the carotid body.

Keywords

Nitrite Carbon Monoxide Arginine NADPH Nitro Prusside 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kramer, E. Carotid body chemoreceptor function: hypothesis based on a new circuit model. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 2507–2511, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lahiri, S., R. Iturriaga., A. Mokashi., D.K. Ray, and D. Chugh. CO reveals dual mechanisms of O2 chemoreception in the cat carotid body. Resp. Physiol. 94: 227–240, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maines, R.D. Heme oxygenase: function, multiplicity, regulatory mechanisms, and clinical applications. FASEB J. 2: 2557–2568, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moncada, S, R. M. J. Palmer, and E. A. Higgs, E. A. Nitric, Oxide: Physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol. Rev. 43: 109–142, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prabhakar, N.R. Significance of excitatory and inhibitory neurochemicals in hypoxic chemo-transmission of the carotid body. In: Control of Breathing: Modelling and Perspecticves. Eds: Honda Yet al. Plenum, New York. pp 141–148, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prabhakar, N.R. Neurotransmitters in the carotid body. In: Arterial Chemoreceptors: Cell to System. Eds: R.O Regan et al, Plenum Press, New York. 1994. pp 57–69.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prabhakar, N.R., J. L. Dinerman., F. H. Agani., and S. H. Snyder. Carbon monoxide: A role in carotid body chemoreception. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92: 1994–1997, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prabhakar, N.R., G.K. Kumar, C.H. Chang, F.H. Agani., and M.A. Haxhiu. Nitric oxide in the sensory function of the carotid body. Brain Res. 625: 16–22. 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Snyder, S. H. Nitric Oxide: First in a new class of neurotransmitters. Science. 257: 494–496, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stevens, C.F., and Y. Wang, Y. Reversal of long term potentiation by inhibitors of heme oxygenase. Nature. 364: 147–148, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verma, A, D.J. Hirsch, C.E. Glatt, G.V. Ronnett, and S.H. Snyder, Carbon monoxide, a putative neural messenger. Science. 259: 381–384. 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang, Z.Z., D.S. Bredt, S.J. Fidone, and L.J. Stensas. Neurons synthesizing nitric oxide innervating the carotid body. J.Comp. Neurol. 336: 419–432, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, Z.Z., L. J. Stensas, D.S. Berdt, B.G. Dinger, and S.J. Fidone, S.J. Mechanisms of carotid body inhibition. In: Arterial chemoreceptors: Cell to System. R.O Regan. etal. plenum Press, New York., 1994. pp 229–235.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhuo, M., S. A. Small, E.R. Kandel, and R. D. Hawkins. Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide produce activity-dependent long-term synaptic enhancement in hippocampus. Science. 260: 1946–1950, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nanduri R. Prabhakar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsCase Western Reserve University, School of MedicineClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations