Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases
Toxic oxygen radicals (collectively called reactive oxygen species, ROS) are intricately related to a vast number of disease processes including a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders1. It is difficult to directly measure ROS because of their extremely short half-life. However, the reactions in which they participate often leave measurable markers (“footprints”) that reflect oxidant activity. Primarily four strategies have evolved to detect oxidant activity for diagnostic purposes:1) measuring products of oxidation, for example lipid peroxides or oxidized glutathione (GSSG); 2) measuring the release of products from damaged cells, for example the release of hepatic enzymes during acute hepatitis; 3) measuring antioxidant enzyme activities which may reflect the systemic compensation to oxidant stress; 4) ROS can be directly measured although the technology is complex and imperfect, the methodology somewhat complicated, and the equipment cost often prohibitive. In this review, I will discuss sources of selected oxidant markers, methodologies involved in their measurement, and their relevance to the diagnosis and management of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Synovial Fluid Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Septic Patient
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