Utilization of Fish Waste for the Making of Fish Sauce



Globally, demand for and the use of fishmeal has increased rapidly, especially in some of the emerging aquaculture countries in Asia. The Asia-Pacific aquaculture sector uses about 2.4 million tons of fishmeal (equivalent to about 10.3 million tons of raw material) as a feed source.

Over 6 million tons of fishmeal is produced worldwide each year from about 25–30 million tons of industrial fish. The demand is increasing with the growth in aquaculture and the price has been rising.

Technological innovation fish product development by utilizing fish waste needs to be done in order to provide added value to small industries. A prospect which is very promising is the manufacture of fish sauce with high protein content, so that it can be used for the food industry. Fish sauce is produced in a quantity of about 400 ,000 tons each year.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Fish Meal Fish Sauce Waste Shrimp Fermented Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Amano K (1962) The influence of fermentation on the nutritive value of fish with special reference to fermented fish products of South-East Asia. In: Heen E, Kreuzer R (eds) Fish nutrition. Fishing News Books, London, 180 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Arason S (2003) Utilization of fish by-products in Iceland. In: Bechtel PJ (ed) Advances in seafood by-products, 2002 conference proceedings. University of Alaska, Alaska, pp 43–62Google Scholar
  3. Beddows CG (1985) Fermented fish and fish products. In: Wood BJB (ed) Microbiology of fermented foods, vol 2. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp 1–39Google Scholar
  4. Beddows CG, Ardeshir AG, Daud WJB (1980) Development and origin of the volatile fatty acids in Budu. J Sci Food Agric 31:86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Budhyatni S, Murtini JT, Peranginangin R (1982) The microflora of terasi powder. Laporan Penelitian Teknologi Perikanan 16:25–33 (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  6. Cole RC, Clucas IJ, Bostock TW, Rogers JF, Stephens AD (1985) Fish handling, preservation and processing in the tropics: part 2. Tropical Development and Research Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Dietz MH (1999) The potential of small-scale food processing for rural economies. Courier 174:89–92Google Scholar
  8. Dissaraphong S, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Kishimura H (2006) The influence of storage conditions of tuna viscera before fermentation on the chemical, physical and microbiological changes in fish sauce during fermentation. Bioresour Technol 97(16):2032–2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO (2004) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Fishmeal Information Network (2007) Fishmeal facts and figures. Fishmeal Information Network Scott 18, April at
  11. Fukami K, Funatsu Y, Kawasaki K, Watabe S (2004) Improvement of fish-sauce odor by treatment with bacteria isolated from the fish-sauce mush (moromi) made from frigate mackerel. J Food Sci 69(2):fms45–fms49Google Scholar
  12. Fukami K, Ishiyama S, Yaguramaki H, Masuzaw T, Nabeta Y, Endo K, Shimoda M (2002) Identification of distinctive volatile compounds in fish sauce. J Agric Food Chem 50:5412–5416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. GAFTA (2012) Accessed 23 Aug 2012
  14. Gildberg A, Espejo-Hermes J, Magno-Orejana F (1984) Acceleration of autolysis during fish sauce fermentation by adding acid and reducing the salt content. J Sci Food Agric 35:1365–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanafiah TAR (1987) Factors affecting quality of pedah siam. Master thesis, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  16. Hjalmarsson GH, Park JW, Kristbergsson K (2007) Seasonal effects on the physicochemical characteristics of fish sauce made from capelin (Mallotus villosus). Food Chem 103:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Idawati (1996) Isolation and selection of lactic acid bacteria having antibacterial activities from peda and kecap ikan. Sarjana thesis, Faculty of Agricultural Technology-Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  18. IFFO (2011) Accessed 23 Aug 2012
  19. Ijong FG, Ohta Y (1995) Amino acid compositions of bakasang, a traditional fermented fish sauce from Indonesia. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28:236–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Irianto HE (1990) Studies on the processing of “pedah”, a traditional Indonesian fermented fish product. Diploma thesis, Massey University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  21. Irianto HE, Brooks JD (1994) Investigation on the optimum conditions in pedah processing. Jurnal Penelitian Pasca Panen Perikanan 8(1):18–29Google Scholar
  22. Isnawan H, Siswa Setyahadi, Suwendo H (2001) Teknologi Pembuatan Kecap Ikan secara Enzimatik Terkendali untuk Industri Skala Menengah dan Rumah Tangga. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia 3(3):8–13Google Scholar
  23. Klinkhardt M (2006) Demand for fish meal and fish oil rising. Eurofish Magazine, 6Google Scholar
  24. Kristinsson HG, Theodore AE, Ingadottir B (2006) Chemical processing methods for protein recovery from marine by-products and underutilized species. In: Shahidi F (ed) Maximising the value of marine by-products. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 144–168Google Scholar
  25. Lopetcharat K, Choi YJ, Park JW, Daeschel MA (2001) Fish sauce products and manufacturing: a review. Food Rev Int 17(1):65–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mackie IM (1982) Fish protein hydrolysates. Proc Biochem 17(1):26–32Google Scholar
  27. Owens JD, Mendoza LS (1985) Enzymically hydrolysed and bacterially fermented fishery products. Int J Food Sci Technol 20:273–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rahayu S (1992) Processing of peda. In: Suparno, Nasran S, Setiabudi E (eds) Compilation of research results of fishery post-harvest. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Jakarta, pp 133–134 (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  29. Rustad T (2003) Utilisation of marine by-products. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 2:458–463Google Scholar
  30. Saisithi P, Kasemsarn RO, Liston J, Dollar AM (1966) Microbiology and chemistry of fermented fish. J Food Sci 31(1):105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suwandi I (1988) Studies on the physiological characteristics of halotolerant bacteria isolated from peda. Sarjana thesis, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor. (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  32. Watanabe F, Michihata T, Takenaka S, Kittaka-Katsura H, Enomoto T, Miyamoto E, Adachi S (2004) Purification and characterization of corrinoid compounds from Japanese fish sauce. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 27(13):2113–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilaipan P (1990) Halophilic bacteria producing lipase in fish sauce. MSc thesis, Chulalongkorn University, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  34. Xiong YLL (2005) Role of myofibrillar proteins in water-binding in brine-enhanced meats. Food Res Int 38(3):281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yunizal (1998) Processing of shrimp terasi. Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian XX(1):4–6 (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  36. Yunizal NS, Muljanah I, dan Peranginangin R (1982) Studies on preparation of lactic acid bacteria starter. Laporan Penelitian Teknologi Perikanan 18:31–36 (in Indonesian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biocatalyst Production Technology Division, Center for Bioindustrial TechnologyAgency for the Assessment and Application of TechnologyJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations