Fundamental Concepts in X-ray Diffraction

Part of the Materials Research and Engineering book series (MATERIALS)


Diffraction methods of residual stress determination basically measure the angles at which the maximum diffracted intensity occur when a crystalline sample is irradiated with x-rays or neutrons. From these angles one then obtains the spacing of the diffracting lattice planes by using Bragg’s law. If the material is under load, these values will be different than the unstressed plane spacing, and the difference will be proportional to the stress acting on the planes. At this point one can use elasticity theory, Is discussed in Chap. 2 and 3, to determine the stress (residual or applied) acting on these planes. Thus, no matter how sophisticated the elasticity analysis, the final stress results are only as good as the data supplied by the diffraction methods.


Residual Stress Incident Beam Fundamental Concept Diffract Beam Position Sensitive Detector 
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Bibliography and References

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    B.D. Cullity, “Elements of X-Ray Diffraction”, 2nd ed. Addison Wesley, Massachusetts, 1978Google Scholar
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    L.H. Schwartz and J.B. Cohen, “Diffraction from Materials”, Academic Press, New York, 1977Google Scholar
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    C.S. Barrett and T.B. Massalski, “Structure of Metals”, 3rd. ed., MacGraw Hill, New York, 1966Google Scholar
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    H.P. Klug and L.E. Alexander, “X-ray Diffraction Procedures”, Wiley, New York, 1967Google Scholar
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    G.E. Bacon, “Neutron Diffraction”, 3rd. ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1975Google Scholar
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    “International Tables for X-ray Crstallography I–IV”, 3rd. ed., Buerger et al. eds, Kynoch Press, Birmingham, England, 1976Google Scholar
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    D.P. Koistinen, R.E. Marburger, Trans. ASM, 51, 537 (1959)Google Scholar
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    M.R. James, “An Examination of Experimental Techniques in X-ray Residual Stress Analysis”, Ph.D. Thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, II., 1977Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thomas J. Watson Research CenterIBMYorktown HeightsUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, The Technological InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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