Part of the Materials Research and Engineering book series (MATERIALS)


In 200 B.C., Chinese artisans manufactured thick bronze discs that were flat and polished on one side and had a relief cast on the other face. These were heated and quenched. When such a “magic mirror” was illuminated on the flat face, the reflection showed the pattern of the relief on the other side of the disc! Due to the different cooling rates of the sections with various thicknesses, distortions occurred on the flat side, which mimicked the pattern of the relief. To our knowledge, this is the first deliberate use of residual stresses and strains. Today we know these play a key role in the behavior of welded structures (and hence in ship construction, pipelines and oil rigs), in the response of heat treated or finished parts (ground gears, shot-peened or sand blasted pieces, or material subjected to laser heat treatments, or quenched after a heat treatment). These stresses are also a key factor in the fatigue response of solids, and in the phenomenon known as stress corrosion.


Residual Stress HSLA Steel Tensile Residual Stress Medium Carbon Steel Armco Iron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thomas J. Watson Research CenterIBMYorktown HeightsUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, The Technological InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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