Advertisement

A Framework for Cloud Interoperability Based on Compliance and Conformance

  • José Carlos Martins DelgadoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

The current cloud computing panorama includes many cloud providers, each with their own model, set of services and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), leaving users with an interoperability problem when trying to avoid a potential dependency on a specific provider. Current approaches tend to tackle this problem (user to cloud or cloud to cloud) by abstracting it, either by providing a common set of APIs, which have to map onto each cloud’s APIs, or by introducing brokers that adapt the views of the user and of the cloud. This chapter proposes another approach that tries to solve the problem at its source, by defining a common service and resource model, a small set of common services (core API), an interoperability mechanism based on compliance and conformance and an extensibility mechanism that allows providers to build different clouds, based on this core and with support for interoperability. The chapter also presents an interoperability framework with three dimensions—lifecycle of services, levels of abstraction in interoperability and concerns, entailing aspects, such as security, quality of service, Service Level Agreement (SLA) and financial aspects. The main goal is not to provide an interoperability solution to existing systems but rather to establish a foundation layer for cloud computing that shows how clouds should be organized to cater for provider differentiation while supporting interoperability from scratch.

Keywords

Cloud computing Compliance Conformance Framework Interoperability Resource Service 

References

  1. 1.
    Armbrust M et al (2010) A view of cloud computing. Commun ACM 53(4):50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carr N (2004) Does IT matter? Information technology and the corrosion of competitive advantage. Business Press, HarvardGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brynjolfsson E, Hofmann P, Jordan J (2010) Cloud computing and electricity: beyond the utility model. Commun ACM 53(5):32–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morgan T (2013) Amazon slices prices on dedicated EC2 private cloud puffs. The Register, 10 July 2013. www.theregister.co.uk/2013/07/10/amazon_slashes_prices_on_dedicated_ec2_server_slices/. Accessed 16 July 2013
  5. 5.
    Clark J (2013) Salesforce and Oracle forge partnership to smash rivals. The Register, 25 Jun 2013. www.theregister.co.uk/2013/06/25/salesforce_oracle_partner_analysis/. Accessed 16 July 2013
  6. 6.
    Anderson E et al (2013) Forecast overview: public cloud services, worldwide, 1Q13 update. Gartner report. http://www.gartner.com/resId=2473016. Accessed 16 July 2013
  7. 7.
    Lewis G, Morris E, Simanta S, Wrage L (2008) Why standards are not enough to guarantee end-to-end interoperability. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on composition-based software systems, Feb 2008, pp 164–173Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petcu D (2013) Multi-cloud: expectations and current approaches. Proceedings of the international workshop on multi-cloud applications and federated clouds, New York, Apr 2013, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mell P, Grance T (2011) The NIST definition of cloud computing. Special publication 800-145, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 2011. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2013
  10. 10.
    Rimal B, Choi E, Lumb I (2009) A taxonomy and survey of cloud computing systems. Proceedings of the fifth international joint conference on INC, IMS and IDC, August 2009, pp 44–51Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang Q, Cheng L, Boutaba R (2010) Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. J Internet Serv Appl 1(1):7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bist M, Wariya M, Agarwal A (2013) Comparing delta, open stack and Xen cloud platforms: a survey on open source IaaS. Proceedings of the IEEE 3rd international advance computing conference, pp 96–100Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jackson K (2012) OpenStack cloud computing cookbook. Packt Publishing Ltd, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sabharwal N, Shankar R (2013) Apache cloudstack cloud computing. Packt Publishing Ltd, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nurmi D et al (2009) The eucalyptus open-source cloud-computing system. Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM international symposium on cluster computing and the grid, May 2009, pp 124–131Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gallagher S, Dalgleish A (2013) VMware private cloud computing with vCloud Director. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    DTMF (2012) Cloud infrastructure management interface (CIMI) model and REST interface over HTTP specification, document number: DSP0263, version 1.0.1., 12 Sept 2012. http://www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards/documents/DSP0243_1.0.1.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2013
  18. 18.
    Edmonds A, Metsch T, Papaspyrou A (2011) Open cloud computing interface in data management-related setups. In: Grid and cloud database management, Springer, Berlin, pp 23–48Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    SNIA (2012) Cloud data management interface (CDMI) v1.0. 2, 18 Mar 2013. http://docs.oasis-open.org/tosca/TOSCA/v1.0/cs01/TOSCA-v1.0-cs01.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2013
  20. 20.
    DTMF (2012) Open virtualization format specification, document number: DSP0263, version 2.0. 0, 13 Dec 2012. www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards/documents/DSP0243_2.0.0.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2013
  21. 21.
    Binz T, Breiter G, Leyman F, Spatzier T (2012) Portable cloud services using Tosca. IEEE Internet Comput 16(3):80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    OASIS (2013) Topology and orchestration specification for cloud applications—version 1. 0, 4 June 2012. http://www.snia.org/cdmi. Accessed 16 July 2013
  23. 23.
    Lewis G (2012) The role of standards in cloud-computing interoperability, Software Engineering Institute, Paper 682, Oct 2012. http://repository.cmu.edu/sei/682. Accessed 16 July 2013
  24. 24.
    Loutas N, Kamateri E, Bosi F, Tarabanis K (2011) Cloud computing interoperability: the state of play. Proceedigs of the IEEE third international conference on cloud computing technology and science, Nov 2011, pp 752–757Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Z, Wu C, Cheung D (2013) A survey on cloud interoperability: taxonomies, standards, and practice. ACM SIGMETRICS Perform Eval Rev 40(4):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kostoska M, Gusev M, Ristov S, Kiroski K (2012) Cloud computing interoperability approaches-possibilities and challenges. Proceedings of the fifth Balkan conference in informatics, Serbia, Sept 16–20, pp 30–34Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Petcu D, Macariu G, Panica S, Crăciun C (2013) Portable cloud applications—from theory to practice. Future Gener Comput Syst 29(6):1417–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Petcu D, Craciun C, Rak M (2011) Towards a cross platform cloud API—components for cloud federation. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on cloud computing and services science, The Netherlands, May 2011, pp 166–169Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nguyen B, Tran V, Hluchý L (2012) Abstraction layer for development and deployment of cloud services. Comput Sci 13(3):79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hill Z, Humphrey M (2010) CSAL: a cloud storage abstraction layer to enable portable cloud applications. Proceedings of the IEEE second international conference on cloud computing technology and science, Nov 2010, pp 504–511Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mındrut C, Fortis T (2013) A semantic registry for cloud services. Proceedings of the 27th international conference on advanced information networking and applications workshops, Spain, March 2013, pp 1247–1252Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loutas N, Kamateri E, Tarabanis K (2011) A semantic interoperability framework for cloud platform as a service. Proceedings of the IEEE third international conference on cloud computing technology and science, Nov 2011, pp 280–287Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Di Modica G, Petralia G, Tomarchio O (2012) A semantic framework to support cloud markets in interoperable scenarios. Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM fifth international conference on utility and cloud computing, Nov 2012, pp 211–214Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bernstein D, Vij D (2010) Using semantic web ontology for intercloud directories and exchanges. Proceedings of the international conference on Internet computing, Las Vegas, NV, July 2010, pp 18–24Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Androcec D, Vrcek N, Seva J (2012) Cloud computing ontologies: a systematic review. Proceedings of the third international conference on models and ontology-based design of protocols, architectures and services, April 2012, pp 9–14Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jardim-Goncalves R, Cretan A, Coutinho C, Dutra M, Ghodous P (2013) Ontology enriched framework for cloud-based enterprise interoperability. In: Concurrent engineering approaches for sustainable product development in a multi-disciplinary environment, Springer, London, pp 1155–1166Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ardagna D et al (2012) MODAClouds: a model-driven approach for the design and execution of applications on multiple clouds. Proceedings of the workshop on modeling in software engineering, June 2012, pp 50–56Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Paraiso F, Merle P, Seinturier L (2013) Managing elasticity across multiple cloud providers. Proceedings of the international workshop on multi-cloud applications and federated clouds, New York, NY, April 2013, pp 53–60Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grozev N, Buyya R (2012) Inter-cloud architectures and application brokering: taxonomy and survey. Software: practice and experience. doi:10.1002/spe.2168Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Demchenko Y, Makkes M, Strijkers R, de Laat C (2012) Intercloud architecture for interoperability and integration. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE international conference on cloud computing technology and science, Taiwan, Dec 2012, pp 666–674Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bernstein D, Ludvigson E, Sankar K, Diamond S, Morrow M (2009) Blueprint for the intercloud-protocols and formats for cloud computing interoperability. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on internet and web applications and services, Venice, Italy, May 2009, pp 328–336Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bernstein D, Vij D (2010) Intercloud directory and exchange protocol detail using XMPP and RDF. Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on services, July 2010, pp 431–438Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jardim-Goncalves R, Grilo A, Agostinho C, Lampathaki F, Charalabidis Y (2013) Systematisation of interoperability body of knowledge: the foundation for enterprise interoperability as a science. Enterp Inf Syst 7(1):7–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ostadzadeh S, Fereidoon S (2011) An architectural framework for the improvement of the ultra-large-scale systems interoperability. Proceedings of the international conference on software engineering research and practice, Las Vegas, July 2011Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guédria W, Gaaloul K, Proper H, Naudet Y (2013) Research methodology for enterprise interoperability architecture approach. Proceedings of the advanced information systems engineering workshops, Springer, Berlin, pp 16–29Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ahronovitz M et al (2010) Cloud computing use cases, version 4.0, white paper from the Cloud Computing Use Case Discussion Group. http://opencloudmanifesto.org/Cloud_Computing_Use_Cases_Whitepaper-4_0.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2013
  47. 47.
    Petcu D (2011) Portability and interoperability between clouds: challenges and case study. Proceedings of the 4th European conference towards a service-based Internet, Poland, Oct 2011, pp 62–74Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fernando N, Loke S, Rahayu W (2013) Mobile cloud computing: a survey. Future Gener Comput Syst 29(1):84–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Keyes J (2013) Bring your own devices (BYOD) survival guide. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gubbi J, Buyya R, Marusic S, Palaniswami M (2013) Internet of things (IoT): a vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Gener Comput Syst 29(7):1645–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aggarwal C, Han J (2013) A survey of RFID data processing. In: Managing and mining sensor data, Springer, US, pp 349–382Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Potdar V, Sharif A, Chang E (2009) Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Proceedings of the international conference on advanced information networking and applications workshops, Bradford, UK, IEEE, May 2009, pp 636–641Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu Y, Rong Z, Jun C, Ping C (2011) Survey of grid and grid computing. Proceedings of the international conference on Internet technology and applications, Wuhan, China, IEEE, Aug 2011, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hughes D, Coulson G, Walkerdine J (2010) A survey of peer-to-peer architectures for service oriented computing. In: Handbook of research on P2P and grid systems for service-oriented computing: models, methodologies and applications, IGI Global, 2010, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Seinstra F et al (2011) Jungle computing: distributed supercomputing beyond clusters, grids, and clouds, In: Grids, clouds and virtualization, Springer, London, pp 167–197Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Buyya R, Ranjan R, Calheiros R (2010) Intercloud: utility-oriented federation of cloud computing environments for scaling of application services. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on algorithms and architectures for parallel processing, Busan, Korea, May 2010, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sundareswaran S, Squicciarini A, Lin D (2012) A brokerage-based approach for cloud service selection. Proceedings of the IEEE 5th international conference on cloud computing, Honolulu, HI, June 2012, pp 558–565Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nair S et al (2010) Towards secure cloud bursting, brokerage and aggregation. Proceedings of the IEEE 8th European conference on web services, Dec 2010, pp 189–196Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    ISO/IEC (1996) ISO/IEC 7498-1, information technology—open systems interconnection—basic reference model: the basic model, 2nd edn corrected, 15 June 1996, International Standards Office, Geneva. http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index.html. Accessed 16 July 2013
  60. 60.
    Earl T (2012) SOA with REST: principles, patterns and constraints for building enterprise solutions with REST, Prentice Hall PTRGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Earl T (2007) SOA: principles of service design, Prentice Hall PTRGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Delgado J (2012) Bridging the SOA and REST architectural styles. In: Migrating legacy applications: challenges in service oriented architecture and cloud computing environments, IGI Global, 2012, pp 276–302Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Delgado J (2012) Structural interoperability as a basis for service adaptability. In: Adaptive web services for modular and reusable software development: tactics and solutions, IGI Global, 2012, pp 33–59Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kokash N, Arbab F (2009) Formal behavioral modeling and compliance analysis for service-oriented systems. In: Formal methods for components and objects, Springer, Verlag, pp 21–41Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Adriansyah A, van Dongen B, van der Aalst W (2010) Towards robust conformance checking. In: Business process management workshops, Springer, Berlin, pp 122–133Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jeong B, Lee D, Cho H, Lee J (2008) A novel method for measuring semantic similarity for XML schema matching. Expert Syst Appl 34:1651–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Euzenat J, Shvaiko P (2007) Ontology matching, Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mizoguchi R, Kozaki K (2009) Ontology engineering environments. In: Handbook on ontologies, Springer, Berlin, pp 315–336Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Satzger B et al (2013) Winds of change: from vendor lock-in to the meta cloud. IEEE Internet Comput 17(1):69–73CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Delgado J (2013) Service interoperability in the internet of things. In: Internet of things and inter-cooperative computational technologies for collective intelligence, Springer, Berlin, pp 51–87Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaPorto SalvoPortugal

Personalised recommendations