The Nature of Openness
This chapter takes a particular position on the notion of ‘openness’, considering it from a broad perspective covering each major phase of the academic lifecycle, namely, design, delivery, evaluation and research. What would a vision of a truly open approach to design mean, beyond open educational resources towards a more explicit representation and sharing of the whole design process? With a shift towards more open learning and teaching practices, the boundaries between traditional, formal educational contexts and other non-formal and informal learning contexts are changing. What would adopting a more open approach to delivery mean? In terms of open evaluation, how can we harness and utilise the data we collect about learners on our courses? How can we build on the understanding developed as part of the learner experience research work and the associated new methodologies? What new methodologies and approaches might we develop to gain new insights into the impact of a changing technological context for learning? What will be the impact of the open access movement for research? How can we capitalise on the rich research data, which is now being made available on a global scale? How can we move to adopting more open approaches to research, open bibliographies and citations, making research outputs available online? What would it mean to make raw data publicly available for others to interrogate and use?
KeywordsResearch Output Open Design Intellectual Capital Pedagogical Model Collective Intelligence
- Anderson, P. (2007, February). What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for education. Citesser, JISC Technology. Standards watch. Available online at http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf . Accessed 11 Aug 2011.
- Anderson, T. (2009, September 8–10). ALT-C Keynote Presentation, ALT-C conference, Manchester. Available online at http://www.slideshare.net/terrya/terry-anderson-alt-c-final
- Bartolomé, A. (2008). Web 2.0 and new learning paradigms. Retrieved from http://www.elearningeuropa.info/out/?doc_id=14603andrsr_id=15529. Accessed 21 Sept 2011.
- Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. London: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
- Bean, M. (2010, January 25). Achieving volume in online learning, presentation to the HE e-learning task force, London.Google Scholar
- Bean, M., & Yeo, J. (2010). A background paper from the Open University. Paper for the HEFCE online e-learning task force. Milton Keynes: The Open University.Google Scholar
- Borgeman, C. (2007a). The continuity of scholarly communication scholarship in the digital age: Information, infrastructure and the Internet. Hong Kong: SNP Best-set Typersetter Ltd.Google Scholar
- Borgeman, C. (2007b). Scholarship in the digital age: Information, infrastructure and the Internet. Hong Kong: SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd.Google Scholar
- Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation.Google Scholar
- Burton, G. (2009). The open scholar. Academic Evolution. Retrieved from http://www.academicevolution.com/2009/08/the-open-scholar.html. Accessed 21 Sept 2011.
- Carson, S. (2010). Failure to define success. http://tofp.wordpress.com/2010/11/04/failure-to-define-success/
- Clough, G., Conole, G., & Scanlon, E. (2010, May 3–4). Using participatory evaluation to support collaboration in an inter-disciplinary context. Networked Learning Conference, Aalborg, Denmark.Google Scholar
- Clow, D., & Makriyannis, E. (2011). iSpot analysed: Participatory learning and reputati. 1st Learning analytics and knowledge conference, 28th February–1st March 2011, Banff, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
- Cobo, C., & Pardo, H. (2007). Planeta web 2.0 inteligencia colectiva o medios fast food, Grup de Recerca d’interacctions. Digitals, Universitad de Vic. Flacso México. Barcelona//México, DF.Google Scholar
- Conole, G. (2006). External evaluation of the eBank project. Southampton: University of Southampton.Google Scholar
- Conole, G. (2007, October 20). The nature of academic discourse, e4innovation blog post, http://e4innovation.com/?p=45. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Conole, G. (2010). Review of pedagogical models and frameworks. Report for the HEFCE e-learning task force. Available online http://cloudworks.ac.uk/index.php/cloud/view/2982
- Fini, A. (2009). Technological dimensions of a Massive Open Online Course: The case of the CCK08 course tools, IRRODL, 10, 5. Available online at http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/viewArticle/643. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Fini, A., Formiconi, A., Giorni, Pirruccello, N. S., Spadavecchia, E., & Zibordi, E. (2008). Open education and virtual communities: An experience. In proceedings of the Conference Knowledge Construction in E-learning Context: CSCL, ODL, ICT and SNA in education CEUR-WS.org.Google Scholar
- Freire, J. (2008). Universities and Web 2.0 institutional challenges. Retrieved from http://www.elearningeuropa.info/out/?doc_id=14604andrsr_id=15530. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Goodyear, P. (2005). Educational design and networked learning: Patterns, pattern languages and design practice. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 21(1), 82–101.Google Scholar
- Goodyear, P., & Retalis, S. (2010). Technology-enhanced learning: Design patterns and pattern languages. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
- Harnard, S., & Hey, J. (1995). Esoteric knowledge, the scholar and scholarly publishing on the net. London: Library Association Publishing.Google Scholar
- Hey, J. (2004). Targeting academic research with Southampton’s institutional repository. Ariadne, 40.Google Scholar
- Katz, R. (2008). The tower and the cloud: Higher Education in the age of cloud computing, an Educause ebook. Available to download from http://www.educause.edu/thetowerandthecloud. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Lévy, P. (1997). Collective intelligence: Mankind’s emerging world in cyberspace (R. Bononno Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
- Lyon, L. (2003). eBank UK: Building the links between research data, scholarly communication and learning, Aridane, 36. Available online at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue36/lyon/. Accessed 20 Nov 2006.
- McAndrew, P., & Weller, M. (2005). Applying learning design to supported open learning. In R. Koper & C. Tattersall (Eds.), Learning design – A handbook on modelling and delivering networked education. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- McAndrew, P., Scanlon, E., & Clow, D. (2010). An open future for higher education. Educause quarterly report, 33(1). Available online at http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/AnOpenFutureforHigherEducation/199388. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Newbould, D. (2010). Comment on draft chapter. From http://www.slideshare.net/grainne/chapter-16-open-practices. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- O’Reilly, T. (2004, 2011, January 17). The architecture of participation. Available online at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/articles/architecture_of_participation.html. Accessed 11 Aug 2011.
- Oliver, M., Roberts, G., Beetham, H., Ingraham, B., Dyke, M., & Levy, P. (2007). Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology. In G. Conole & M. Oliver (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on e-learning research. London: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
- Pearce, N., Weller, M., Scanlon, E., & Kinsley, S. (2010). Digital scholarship considered: How new technologies could transform academic practice. Education, 16(1). Available online at http://ineducation.ca/article/digital-scholarship-considered-how-new-technologies-could-transform-academic-work. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Rumble, G. (1989). ‘Open learning’, ‘distance learning’, and the misuse of language. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 4(2), 28–36.Google Scholar
- Sharpe, R., Beetham, H., & Freitas, D. (2010). Rethinking learning for the digital age: How learners shape their own experiences. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Siemens, G. (2008, November 24). Who is still participating?, blog post. Available online at http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/connectivism/?p=182. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Siemens, G. (2009, August 11). Connectivism and connective knowledge 2009. Available online at http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/connectivism/?p=189. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Straub, R. (2008, April). Is the world open? Global focus, volume 2, issue 1 (2008), European Foundation for Management Development, Elearning papers. Available online at http://elearningpapers.eu/en/article/Is-the-world-open%3F
- Tait, A. (2003). Reflections on student support in open and distance learning, Guest Editorial. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(1).Google Scholar
- Tait, A., & Mills, R. (2003). Rethinking learner support in distance education: Change and continuity in an international context. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Weller, M. (2009). Reflections on openness. http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/no_good_reason/2009/09/reflections-on-openness.html. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Weller, M. (2011). Digital, networked and open. London: Bloomsbury Academics.Google Scholar
- Wiley, D. (2008, July 18). The “Wiley WIKI design”, Opencontent blog posting. Available online at http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/514. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Wiley, D. (2010). Why bother being open? http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/1735. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.
- Wiley, D. (n.d.). E-learning and openness. Retrieved from mediastudio.unu.edu/download/wiley.ppt. Accessed 7 Oct 2011.