They could be persuaded: using your managerial influence

  • Owen Hargie
  • David Dickson
  • Dennis Tourish
Chapter

Abstract

Life would be much easier if other people would only do what we wanted, and just get on with it without any negative comment or complaint. Unfortunately this is far from the case, since we continually have to persuade and influence those with whom we come into contact that what we are recommending is the path they should take. Indeed, influence is a central thread in the fabric of social life. We devote a great deal of our interactive time with others to this aspect. To take but one simple example, when we are with friends we smile, laugh, listen to what they are saying, and give them sympathy, encouragement and support. A main reason why we do this is to influence them to maintain their positive relationship with us. In this sense, influence is pervasive. As summarised by Forgas and Williams:1 ‘All forms of human interaction involve mutual influence processes, and these function at a variety of levels.’ In this chapter we shall examine these levels of influence.

Keywords

Smoke Sine Tate Bark Dine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Forgas, J. and Williams, K. (2001) ‘Social influence: introduction and overview’, in J. Forgas and K. Williams (eds) Social Influence: Direct and Indirect Processes, Philadelphia: Psychology Press, p. 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bragg, M. (1996) Reinventing Influence: How to Get Things Done in a World Without Authority, London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morris, M., Podolny, J. and Ariel, S. (2001) ‘Culture, norms, and obligations: cross-national differences in patterns of interpersonal norms and felt obligations toward coworkers’, in W. Wosinska, R. Cialdini, D. Barrett and J. Reykowski (eds) The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, p. 98.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keys, B. and Case, T. (2003) ‘How to become an influential manager’, in R. Lewicki, D. Saunders, J. Minton and B. Barry (eds) Negotiation: Readings, Exercise and Cases, 4th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 202.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pearson, J. and Nelson, P. (2000) An Introduction to Human Communication: Understanding and Sharing, 5th edition, Boston: McGraw-Hill, p. 430.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hargie, O. and Dickson, D. (2004) Skilled Interpersonal Communication: Research, Theory and Practice, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hsiung, R. and Bagozzi, R. (2003) ‘Validating the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion with the family social relations model’, Human Communication Research, 29: 81–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen, M. and Stiff, J. (1998) ‘An analysis of the sleeper effect’, in M. Allen and R. Preiss (eds) Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-analysis, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Peau, M., Szabo, E., Anderson, J., Morrill, J., Zubric, J. and Wan, H. (2001) ‘The role and impact of affect in the process of resistance to persuasion’, Human Communication Research, 27: 216–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pearson, J. and Nelson, P. (2000) An Introduction to Human Communication: Understanding and Sharing, 5th edition, Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGuire, W.J. (1981) ‘Theoretical foundations of campaigns’, in R. Rice and W. Paisley (eds) Public Communication Campaigns, Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Turner, J. (1991) Social Influence, Buckingham: Open University.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kipnis, D. and Schmidt, S. (1990) ‘The language of persuasion’, in I. Asherman and S. Asherman (eds) The Negotiation Sourcebook, Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development Press, p. 50.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (1997) Organizational Behaviour, 3rd edition, London: Prentice Hall, p. 695.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen, M. and Preiss, R. (eds) (1998) Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-analysis, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Allen, M. (1998) ‘Comparing the persuasive effectiveness of one-and two-sided messages’, in M. Allen and R. Preiss (eds) Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-analysis, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allen, M., Bruflat, R., Fucilla, R., Kramer, M., McKellips, S., Ryan, D. and Spiegelhoff, M. (2000) ‘Testing the persuasiveness of evidence: combining narrative and statistical forms’, Communication Research Reports, 17: 331–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cruz, M. (1998) ‘Explicit and implicit conclusions in persuasive messages’, in M. Allen and R. Preiss (eds) Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-analysis, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barry, B. and Bateman, T. (1992) ‘Perceptions of influence in managerial dyads: the role of hierarchy, media and tactics’, Human Relations, 45: 555–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewicki, R., Barry, B., Saunders, D. and Minton, J. (2003) Negotiation, 4th edition, Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, p. 208.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Keefe, D. and Hale, S. (2001) ‘An odds-ratio-based meta-analysis of research on the door-in-the-face influence strategy’, Communication Reports, 14: 31–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Keefe, D. (2002) Persuasion: Theory and Research, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dawson, P. (2004) ‘Managing change: communication and political process’, in D. Tourish and O. Hargie (eds) Key Issues in Organisational Communication, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dawson, P. (2003) Understanding Organizational Change: The Contemporary Experience of People at Work, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cialdini, R. (2001) Influence: Science and Practice, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morley, I. (1997) ‘Negotiating and bargaining’, in O. Hargie (ed.) The Handbook of Communication Skills, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ohme, R. (2001) ‘Social influence in media: culture and antismoking advertising’, in W. Wosinska, R. Cialdini, D. Barrett and J. Reykowski (eds) The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cialdini, R. (2001) ‘Harnessing the science of persuasion’, Harvard Business Review, October: 70–80.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gibb-Clark, M. (1997) ‘People with “hot skills” can “call the shots” on wages, survey finds’, The Globe and Mail, October 29, B6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Forgas, J. 2001 ‘On being moody but influential: the role of affect in social influence strategies’, in J. Forgas and K. Williams (eds) Social Influence: Direct and Indirect Processes, Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vaes, J., Paladino, M. and Leyens, J. (2002) ‘The lost-mail: prosocial reactions induced by uniquely human emotions’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 41: 521–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mongeau, P. (1998) ‘Another look at fear-arousing persuasive appeals’, in M. Allen and R. Preiss (eds) Persuasion: Advances Through Meta-analysis, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hargie, O. and Dickson, D. (2004) op. cit.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davey, K. and Liefhooghe, P. (2003) ‘Voice and power: a critical investigation of accounts of bullying in organizations’, in A. Schorr, W. Campbell and M. Schenk (eds) Communication Research and Media Science in Europe, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lewicki, R., Barry, B., Saunders, D. and Minton, J. (2003) op. cit.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garko, M.G. (1992) ‘Physician executives’ use of influence strategies: gaining compliance from superiors who communicate in attractive and unattractive styles’, Health Communication, 4: 137–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Craig, O. (1997) ‘Focus’, Sunday Telegraph, 29 June, p. 21.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Iyengar, S. and Brockner, J. (2001) ‘Cultural differences in self and the impact of personal and social influences’, in W. Wosinska, R. Cialdini, D. Barrett and J. Reykowski (eds) The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dillard, J. and Peck, E. (2001) ‘Persuasion and the structure of affect: dual systems and discrete emotions as complementary models’, Human Communication Research, 27: 38–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kleinke, C. (1986) Meeting and Understanding People, New York: Freeman, p. 179.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hayes, N. (1998) Foundations of Psychology, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey: Thomas Nelson.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bohner, G., Ruder, M. and Erb, H. (2002) ‘When expertise backfires: contrast and assimilation effects in persuasion’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 41: 495–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clampitt, P. (2001) Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Di Blasi, Z. (2003) ‘The crack in the biomedical box’, The Psychologist, 16: 72–5.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dixon, M. and Sweeney, M. (2001) The Human Effect in Medicine: Theory, Research and Practice, Abingdon, Oxon: Radcliffe Medical Press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    ‘Workers prefer title to pay’, Belfast Telegraph, 18 April, 2000, p. 9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Daily Telegraph Correspondent (2002) ‘Grander job titles but no more pay’, The Daily Telegraph, 7 March, p. 15.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cialdini, R. (2001) Influence: Science and Practice, op. cit.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barrow, B. (2002) ‘£3 million wasted as Royal Mail makes comeback’, The Daily Telegraph, 14 June, p. 6.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sapsted, D. (2002) ‘Firm’s £1 m search for a 10-minute name’, The Daily Telegraph, 1 March, p. 13.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bragg, M. (1996) op. cit.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schweiger, D. and Denisi, A. (1991) ‘Communicating with employees: a longitudinal field experiment’, Academy of Management Journal, 34: 110–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bennett, H. (1996) ‘Communicating change — a case for multiple method’s’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 1: 32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hargie, O. and Tourish, D. (eds) (2000) Handbook of Communication Audits for Organisations, Routledge: London.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tourish, D. and Wohlforth, T. (2000) On the Edge: Political Cults Right and Left, Amherst, NY: M.E. Sharpe, p. 17.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cialdini, R. and Rhoads, K. (2001) ‘Human behavior and the marketplace’, Marketing Research, Fall: 9–13.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Little, A. and Perett, D. (2002) ‘Putting beauty back in the eye of the beholder’, The Psychologist, 15: 28–32.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hargie, O. (1997) ‘Interpersonal communication: a theoretical framework’, in O. Hargie (ed.) The Handbook of Communication Skills, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Duck, S. (1995) ‘Repelling the study of attraction’, The Psychologist, 8: 60–3.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Feeley, T. and Barnett, G. (1997) ‘Predicting employee turnover from communication networks’, Human Communication Research, 23: 370–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cialdini, R. (2001) Influence: Science and Practice, op. cit., p. 176.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hargie, O. and Dickson, D. (2004) op. cit.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rackham, N. and Morgan, T. (1977) Behaviour Analysis in Training, London: McGraw-Hill, p. 233.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Smith, D. and Higgins, S. (1997) ‘Call me “Sir”, demand British bosses’, The Sunday Times, July 13.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Foot, H. (1997) ‘Humour and laughter’, in O. Hargie (ed.) The Handbook of Communication Skills, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Meyer J. (2000) ‘Humor as a double-edged sword: four functions of humor in communication’, Communication Theory, 10: 310–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Campbell, K., Martin, M. and Wanzer, M. (2001) ‘Employee perceptions of manager humor orientation, assertiveness, responsiveness, approach/ avoidance strategies, and satisfaction’, Communication Research Reports, 18: 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kipnis, D. and Schmidt, S. (1990) ‘The language of persuasion’, in I. Asherman and S. Asherman (eds) The Negotiation Sourcebook, Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development Press.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morris, M., Podolny, J. and Ariel, S. (2001) ‘Culture, norms, and obligations: cross-national differences in patterns of interpersonal norms and felt obligations toward coworkers’, in W. Wosinska, R. Cialdini, D. Barrett and J. Reykowski (eds) The Practice of Social Influence in Multiple Cultures, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Orpen, C. (2000) ‘The interactive effects of role uncertainty and accountability on employee use of upward influence tactics’, Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 37: 2–4.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Krone, K. (1992) ‘A comparison of organizational, structural, and relationship effects on subordinates’ upward influence choices’, Communication Quarterly, 40: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Strack, F. and Mussweiler, T. (2001) ‘Resisting influence: judgmental correction and its goals’, in J. Forgas and K. Williams (eds) Social Influence: Direct and Indirect Processes, Philadelphia: Psychology Press, p. 208.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mitchell, M. (2000) ‘Able but not motivated: the relative effects of happy and sad mood on persuasive message processing’, Communication Monographs, 67: 215–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Meyers-Levy, J. and Malaviya, P. (1999) ‘Consumers’ processing of persuasive advertisements: an integrative framework of persuasion theories’, Journal of Marketing, 63: 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Huczynski, A. (1996) Influencing Within Organizations, London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Owen Hargie, David Dickson and Dennis Tourish 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Owen Hargie
  • David Dickson
  • Dennis Tourish

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations