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Japan’s advance into South-East Asia was an extension of the conflict which began in China in 1937. Active penetration of the region commenced in 1940, when Japan used diplomatic means to gain access to northern Vietnam, and the process continued in 1941 when the Vichy government in France agreed to place Indochina under Japanese protection. French colonial authorities in Vietnam reluctantly acceded to this arrangement on 29 July, following the landing of 30 000 Japanese soldiers in the southern part of the country. The move caused the United States to freeze Japanese funds and, together with Britain and the Netherlands, to impose a de facto embargo on exports to Japan. Because Japan drew on South-East Asia for oil, bauxite and other raw materials needed by the military, the restrictions threatened Japan’s capacity to wage war, and instead of restraining Japanese aggression as intended, precipitated open conflict.
KeywordsFood Shortage Black Market Japanese Occupation Japanese Soldier East Coast State
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- 1.See Marshall S. McLennan, The Central Luzon Plain: Land and Society on the Inland Frontier (Manila: Alemar-Phoenix Publishing House, 1980), chs 3–4, and R.E. Elson, Village Java under the Cultivation System, 1830–1870 ( Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1994 ), pp. 234–6.Google Scholar