Physical Emotion Induction and Its Use in Entertainment: Lessons Learned

  • Ralph Kok
  • Joost Broekens
Part of the IFIP International Federation for Information Processing book series (IFIPAICT, volume 279)


It is well known that our emotional response is related to our bodily state, and more specifically that our bodily state can directly influence particular emotions we feel. It appears, however, that this fact has so far not had a significant influence in the entertainment industry. We first review existing work on physical emotion induction. Based on this work we present several techniques to influence emotional responses through physical means in a non-cognitive manner. The basis for the different techniques is a two-factor model of emotion: Pleasure and Arousal. We selected 4 sets of movie clips that correspond to the 4 possible quadrants existing in the 2 factor model. We have implemented some of the emotion induction techniques in a physical device (interactive chair) and tested the effects on the immersiveness of the movie clips and the emotional experience of the participants.


Bodily State Skin Conductance Specific Emotion Arousal Intensity Entertainment Industry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    W. James, What is an emotion?, Mind, Vol. 9 (1884), pp. 188-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Philippot, G. Chapelle, S. Blairy, Respiratory feedback in the generation of emotion, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 16 (2002) No. 5, pp. 605-627Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.E. Duclos, J.D. Laird, E. Schneider, M. Sexter, L. Stern, O. Van Lighten, Emotionspecific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 57 (1989) No. 1, pp. 100-108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.N. McIntosh, R.B. Zajonc, P.S. Vig, S.W. Emerick, Facial Movement, Breathing, Temperature and Affect: Implications of the Vascular Theory of Emotional Efference, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 11 (1997) No. 2, pp. 171-195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.H. Riskind, C.C. Gotay, Physical Posture: Could It Have Regulatory or Feedback Effects on Motivation and Emotion?, Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 6 (1982) No. 3, pp. 273-298Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F.A. Boiten, N.H. Frijda, C.J.E. Wientjes, Emotions and respiratory patterns: review and critical analysis, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 17 (1994), pp. 103-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Mittelmann, H.G. Wollf, Affective States and Skin Temperature: Experimental Study of Subjects With “Cold Hands” and Raynaud’s Syndrome, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 1 (1939) No. 2, pp. 271-292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Briese, Emotional Hyperthermia and Performance in Humans, Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 58 (1995) No. 3, pp. 615-618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.A. McFarland, Relationship of Skin Temperature Changes to the Emotions Accompanying Music, Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Vol. 10 (1985) No. 3, pp. 255-267Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.A. Anderson, Temperature and Aggression: Ubiquitous Effects of Heat on Occurrence of Human Violence, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 106 (1989) No. 1, pp. 74-96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.A. Anderson, K.B. Anderson, W.E. Deuser, Examining an Afective Aggression Framework: Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect and Attitudes, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 22 (1996) No. 4, pp. 366-376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.Z. Tan, A. Pentland, Tactual Displays for Wearable Computing, Personal Technologies, Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 225-230Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Brave, A. Dahley, inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication, CHI 97, (1997) 22-27 March, pp. 363-364Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Mathew, vSmileys: Imaging Emotions through Vibration Patterns, Alternative Access: Feelings and Games 2005, (2005) SpringGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.F. Rovers, H.A. Van Essen, HIM: A Framework for Haptic Instant Messaging, CHI2004, (2004) April 24-29, pp. 1313-1316Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Yohanan, M. Chan, J. Hopkins, H. Sun, K. MacLean, Hapticat: Exploration of Affective Touch, ICMI’05, (2005) October 4-6, pp. 222-22Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.D.Decaria, S. Proctor, T.E. Malloy, The effect of false heart rate feedback on selfreports of anxiety and on actual heart rate, Behavior Research & Therapy, Vol. 12 (1974), pp. 251-253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K.T. Larkin, S.B. Manuck, A.L. Kasprowicz, The Effect of Feedback-Assisted Reduction in Heart Rate Reactivity on Videogame Performance, Biofeedback and self-regulation, Vol. 15 (1990) No. 4, pp. 285-303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E.H. Liebhart, Effects of False Heart Rate Feedback and Task Instructions on Information Search, Attributions, and Stimulus Ratings, Psychological Research, Vol. 39 (1977), pp. 185-202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Parkinson, L. Colgan, False Autonomic Feedback: Effects of Attention to Feedback on Ratings of Pleasant and Unpleasant Target Stimuli, Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 12(1988) No.1, pp. 87-98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Collett, E. Vernet-Maury, G. Delhomme, A. Dittmar, Autonomic nervous system response patterns specificity to basic emotions, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, Vol. 62 (1997), pp. 45-57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.D. Critchley, R. Elliott, C.J. Mathias, R.J. Dolan, Neural Activity Relating to Generation and Representation of Galvanic Skin Conductance Responses: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study, The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 20 (2000) No. 8, pp. 3033-3040Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H.D. Critchley, Electrodermal Responses: What Happens in the Brain, Neuroscientist, Vol. 8 (2002) No. 2, pp. 132-142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. Hubert, R. De Jong-Meyer, Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Positive and Negative Film Stimuli, Biological Psychology, Vol. 31 (1990), pp. 73-93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Khalfa, P. Isabelle, B. Jean-Pierre, R. Manon, Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans, Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 328 (2002), pp. 145-149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Pecchinenda, C.A. Smith, The Affective Significance of Skin Conductance Activity During a Difficult Problem-Solving Task, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 10 (1996) No. 5, pp. 481-503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.J. Ferreira, W.D. Winter, The Palmar Sweat Print: A Methodological Study, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 22 (1963) No. 4, pp. 377-384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Mittelmann, H.G. Wollf, Affective States and Skin Temperature: Experimental Study of Subjects With “Cold Hands” and Raynaud’s Syndrome, Psychosomatic Medicine 1 (1939) No. 2, pp. 271-292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.A. Allen, J.E. Armstrong, I.C. Roddie, The Regional Distribution of Emotional Sweating in Man. Journal of Physiology 235 (1973) No. 3, pp. 749-759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Epple, R.S. Herz, Ambient Odors Associated to Failure Influence Cognitive Performance in Children, Developmental Psychobiology 35 (1999), pp. 103-107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.S. Herz, J. Eliassen, S. Beland, T. Souza, Neuroimaging evidence for the emotional potency of odor-evoked memory, Neuropsychologia 42 (2004), pp. 371-378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.N. Rétiveau, E. Chambers IV, G.A. Milliken, Common and Specific Effects of Fine Fragrances on the Mood of Women, Journal of Sensory Studies 19 (2004), pp. 373-394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Haviland-Jones, D.J. McGuire, The Scents of Fear and Funny, The Aroma-Chology Review 8 (1999) No. 2, pp. 11Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.A. Russell, Core Affect and the Psychological Construction of Emotion, Psychological Review 110 (2003) No. 1, pp. 145-172MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph Kok
    • 1
  • Joost Broekens
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Media TechnologyLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Telematica Instituut EnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.LIACSLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations