Compressor-Specific Design of a Single Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator
- 1.2k Downloads
A single stage active valve pulse tube refrigerator has been designed to operate at 30 K and provide a nominal cooling power in excess of 30 watts. This report details the various considerations comprising the system design, focusing on the limitations imposed by the reciprocating-type compressor commonly used for GM-style pulse tube refrigerators. We describe a design method for GM-style pulse tubes to maximize the pulse tube cooling power that can be produced from a compressor of fixed capacity. The method provides a physical understanding of the various influencing factors, and is illustrated using the specifications for the Cryomech CP640 compressor, which draws a maximum electrical power of 5.5 kW. The design process begins by defining mass flow and compressor work as a function of the discharge and suction pressures, thereby producing a compressor performance map. The compressor map in turn provides a framework from which the pulse tube system geometry can be optimized for maximum cooling power. Various real constraints, such as pressure drop through the valves and regenerator, laminar boundary layer along the pulse tube walls, and conduction losses are included in the design process and are shown to significantly impact the optimized result.
KeywordsMass Flow Rate Outlet Pressure Conduction Loss Cooling Capacity Cooling Power
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.S. Fujimoto, Y.M. Kang, Y. Matsubara, “Development of a 5 to 20 W at 80 K GM Pulse Tube Cooler,” Cryocoolers 10, Plenum Press, New York (1999), pp. 213–220.Google Scholar
- 2.C. Wang, G. Thummes, C. Heiden, “Performance Study on a Two-Stage 4 K Pulse Tube Cooler,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering vol. 43, Plenum Press, New York (1998), pp. 2055–2062.Google Scholar
- 3.A. Ravex, J.M. Poncet, I. Charles, and P. Bleuze, “Development of Low Frequency Pulse Tube Refrigerators,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering vol.43, Plenum Press, New York (1990), pp. 1957–1964.Google Scholar
- 5.P. Popovic and H.N. Shapiro, “A Semi-empirical Method for Modeling a Reciprocating Compressor in Refrigeration Systems,” ASHRAE Transactions vol. 101(2), (1995), pp. 367–382.Google Scholar
- 6.D. Jaehnig, “A Semi-Empirical Method for Modeling Reciprocating Compressors in Residential Refrigerators and Freezers,” MS Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, (1999).Google Scholar
- 7.D. Jaehnig, S.A. Klein, and D.T. Reindl, “A Semi-Empirical Method for Representing Domestic Refrigerator/Freezer Compressor Calorimeter Test Data.”, ASHRAE Transactions, (June, 2000), Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
- 9.V. Arp and R. Radebaugh, “Interactive Program for Microcomputers to Calculate the Optimum Regenerator Geometry for Cryocoolers (REGEN and REGEN2),” AFWAL-TR-87-3040 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, (1987).Google Scholar