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Vacuum Manual

  • L. Holland
  • W. Steckelmacher
  • J. Yarwood

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, J. Yarwood
    Pages 1-84
  3. L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, J. Yarwood
    Pages 85-336
  4. L. Holland, W. Steckelmacher, J. Yarwood
    Pages 337-408
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 409-427

About this book

Introduction

Vacuum apparatus is widely used in research and industrial establishments for providing and monitoring the working environments required for the operation of many kinds of scientific instruments and process plant. The vacuum conditions needed range from the relatively coarse vacuum requirements in applications covering diverse fields such as food packaging, dentistry (investment casting), vacuum forming, vacuum metallur­ gical processes, vacuum impregnation, molecular distillation, vacuum drying and freeze drying etc. to the other extreme involving the highest possible vacuum as in particle accelerators, space technology -both in simulation and outer space, and research studies of atomically clean surfaces and pure condensed metal films. Vacua commence with the rough vacuum region, i.e. from atmosphere to 100 Pa * passing 6 through medium vacuum of 100 Pa to 0·1 Pa and high vacuum of 0·1 Pa to 1 J.lPa (10- Pa) until ultra high vacuum is reached below 1 J.lPa to the limit of measurable pressure about 12 I pPa (10- Pa).

Keywords

engine evolution flow fluid furnace growth instruments laminar flow mass material packaging scanning scattering simulation thin films

Editors and affiliations

  • L. Holland
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. Steckelmacher
    • 1
  • J. Yarwood
    • 3
  1. 1.Edwards High VacuumUK
  2. 2.Brunel UniversityUK
  3. 3.Central London PolytechnicUK

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-8120-4
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1974
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-94-011-8122-8
  • Online ISBN 978-94-011-8120-4
  • Buy this book on publisher's site