Five hundred eighty five subjects including 247 females (130 of them were considered as controls while 117 were assigned as cases) and 338 males (107 of them were controls while 231 were cases) were evaluated for this study. The baseline characteristics of the CAD and control groups are shown in Table 1. There was no statistical significant difference in gender between the two groups. However, the results showed a perceptible difference regarding to patients’ age even though the control group was somewhat younger than CAD patients. Other parameters including blood pressure and glucose levels were found to be higher in the control group than CAD patients. Lipid parameters such as LDL and HDL levels did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Nevertheless, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher in CAD patients than control group even though some of them are on atorvastatin.
No statistical significant difference in gender between the two groups. However, the results showed a perceptible difference regarding to patients’ age even though the control group was somewhat younger than CAD patients. Other parameters including blood pressure and glucose levels were found to be higher in the control group than CAD patients. Lipid parameters such as LDL and HDL levels did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Nevertheless, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher in CAD patients than control group even though some of them are on atorvastatin.
Relationship between T allele and triglycerides levels
TG levels in patients carrying the wildtype allele differ depending on whether they are on atorvastatin, a drug that lower cholesterol levels in the plasma, or not. CAD patients who were on atorvastatin presented higher TG levels than patients who were not on this drug (average TG levels for both groups were 143.5 mg/dl and 125.8 mg/dl respectively). Regarding to the T allele presence, two of the male patients have the T haplotype in APOA5 gene while only one patient has TT allele. One of the heterozygous GT allele patients and the TT allele patient are on atorvastatin. On the other hand, the other GT allele patient is not on atorvastatin and is considered as a control in this study. TG levels in T allele patients were significantly lower than the control GT allele patient (χ2 = 2.382E2a, P-value < 0.001). Overall, patients carrying T allele showed lower levels of TG than patients carrying GG allele. See Table 2.
Association of T allele with other lipid parameters
In addition to TG levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol levels were measured. Results from the analysis showed minor differences between patients carrying the wildtype and minor T alleles. CAD patient carrying TT allele and GT allele patient on Atorvastatin have normal LDL levels (77 mg/dl and 45 mg/dl) respectively. On the other hand, CAD patient carrying GT allele but not on atorvastatin has slightly high yet normal LDL level (158 mg/dl). LDL levels vary in patients with the wildtype allele (11 to 199 mg/dl). There was no significant difference in HDL levels between all CAD patients carrying GT and TT alleles, and the range of which varies from 32 to 44 mg/dl. Finally, regarding to cholesterol levels in CAD patients with the minor T allele, the patient with GT allele on cholesterol medication has normal cholesterol level (111 mg/dl) while cholesterol level in the other GT patient was high (258 mg/dl). The homozygous patient for the T allele presented normal cholesterol levels of 134 mg/dl, and the levels in GG patients ranged from 25 to 264 mg/dl (P-value < 0.001). See Fig. 2.
Association of T allele with other factors
Other parameters such as smoking status, diabetes and exercising were included in this study. In T allele patients, the T allele homozygous patient is diabetic who smokes and does not exercise. Conversely, the patients who are heterozygous for the T allele were non-smokers, non-diabetic and performed exercises. The differences in previous parameters showed no significant effects on their TG levels. Therefore, these parameters seem to have no influence on the T allele presence. On the other hand, there was a difference in the outcomes of patients who were on aspirin. In T allele patients, the two patients who were taking Aspirin had lower TG levels of 71 and 170 mg/dl than the patient who was not taking aspirin, the control. See Table 1. In addition, patients with the wildtype allele and who were on aspirin and atorvastatin presented the lowest TG level of 35 mg/dl when compared to GG patients who were either on aspirin or atorvastatin with TG levels of 40 and 37 mg/dl, respectively. See Fig. 2 and Figs. 3, 4.