The European Physical Journal E

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 431–437 | Cite as

Active membranes studied by X-ray scattering

  • A. Giahi
  • M. El Alaoui Faris
  • P. Bassereau
  • T. Salditt
Regular Article


In view of recent theories of “active” membranes, we have studied multilamellar phospholipid membrane stacks with reconstituted transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under different illumination conditions by X-ray scattering. The light-active protein is considered as an active constituent which drives the system out of equilibrium and is predicted to change the collective fluctuation properties of the membranes. Using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray non-specular (diffuse) scattering, and grazing incidence scattering, we find no detectable change in the scattering curves when changing the illumination condition. In particular the intermembrane spacing d remains constant, after eliminating hydration-related artifacts by design of a suitable sample environment. The absence of any observable non-equilibrium effects in the experimental window is discussed in view of the relevant parameters and recent theories.


87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and X-ray diffraction and scattering 87.15.Kg Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions 87.15.Ya Fluctuations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    U. Haupts, J. Tittor, D. Oesterhelt, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 28, 367 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Prost, J.-B. Manneville, R. Bruinsma, Eur. Phys. J. B 1, 465 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Prost, R. Bruinsma, Europhys. Lett. 1, 321 (1996).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Sankakaraman, G. Menon, Phys. Rev. E 66, 031914 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Ramaswamy, J. Toner, J. Prost, Pramana J. Phys. 53, 237 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Ramaswamy, J. Toner, J. Prost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3494 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Ramaswamy, M. Rao, C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. IV: Phys. Astrophys. 2, 817 (2001).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hsuan-Yi Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 168101 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Gov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 268104 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.C.-L. Lin, N. Gov, F.L.H. Brown, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074903 (2006).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.-B. Manneville, P. Basserau, D. Levy, J. Prost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4356 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.-B. Manneville, P. Basserau, S. Ramaswamy, J. Prost, Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Girard, J. Prost, P. Bassereau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 088101 (2005).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Nat. New Biol. 233, 149 (1971).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Girard, J. Pécréaux, G. Lenoir, P. Falson, J.-L. Rigaud, P. Bassereau, Biophys. J. 87, 419 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Oesterhelt, W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Müller, C. Münster, T. Salditt, Biophys. J. 78, 3208 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Constantin, U. Mennicke, C. Li, T. Salditt, Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 283 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.R. Tajbakhsh, S.V. Ahir, A.M. Squires, E.M. Terentjev, Phys. Rev. B 73, 085420 (2006).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U. Mennicke, D. Constantin, T. Salditt, Eur. Phys. J. E 20, 221 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Salditt, M. Vogel, W. Fenzl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 178101 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Spaar, T. Salditt, Biophys. J. 85, 1576 (2003).ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Kahya, D.A. Wiersma, B. Poolman, D. Hoekstra, J. Biol. Chem. 277, 39304 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Stryer, Biochemistry (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1994).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.C. Rheinstädter, T. Salditt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 048103 (2006).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Giahi
    • 1
  • M. El Alaoui Faris
    • 2
  • P. Bassereau
    • 2
  • T. Salditt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für RöntgenphysikGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Laboratoire Physico ChimieUnité Mixte de Recherche 168 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut CurieParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations