Can the SDGs Promote Structural Transformation in Africa? An Empirical Analysis
- 83 Downloads
The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 has refocused global attention on the centrality of sustainability to the development discourse. Meanwhile, African countries are prioritizing structural transformation in their national and continental development programmes to promote employment through commodity-based industrialization. How will efforts to promote economic, social and environmental sustainability influence Africa’s agenda for structural transformation? Using panel data for of 29 African countries for the period 1995–2011, this article empirically analyzes the impact of economic, social and environmental sustainability on structural transformation in Africa. Our findings indicate that structural transformation is optimized when policy interventions adopt an integrated approach to sustainable development that takes into account all of its dimensions.
Keywordssustainable development structural transformation panel data factor analysis Africa
- Acemoglu, Daron and James Robinson (2012) Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Publishing Group.Google Scholar
- AfDB (African Development Bank) (2012) ‘Income Inequality in Africa’, Briefing Note 5. Available from: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-Documents/FINAL%20Briefing%20Note%205%20Income%20Inequality%20in%20Africa.pdf, accessed 10 November 2015.
- Akbar, Atif, Muhammad Imdadullah, Muhammad Aman Ullah and Muhammad Aslam (2011) ‘Determinants of economic growth in Asian countries: a panel data perspective’, Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences 31(1): 145–157.Google Scholar
- AUC (African Union Commission) (2014) ‘Agenda 2063: the Africa we want’. Addis Ababa: AUC.Google Scholar
- Baltagi, Badi H. (2013) Econometric analysis of panel data, fifth ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Cetorelli, Nicola and Michele Gambera (1999) ‘Banking market structure, financial dependence and growth: international evidence from industry data’, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper WP-99-8.Google Scholar
- Dabla-Norris, Era, Alun Thomas, Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu and Yingyuan Chen (2013) ‘Benchmarking structural transformation across the world’, IMF Working Paper WP/13/176.Google Scholar
- Dempster, Arthur P., Nan M. Laird and Donald B. Rubin (1977) ‘Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological) 39(1): 1–38.Google Scholar
- ECA (Economic Commission for Africa) (2011) ‘Assessing Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals’. Addis Ababa: ECA.Google Scholar
- ECA (2014) ‘Assessing Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals’. Addis Ababa: ECA.Google Scholar
- ECA and AUC (2012) ‘Economic Report on Africa 2012: Unleashing Africa’s Potential as a Pole of Economic Growth’. Addis Ababa: ECA.Google Scholar
- ECA, AUC, AfDB and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2015) ‘MDG Report 2015 - assessing progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals: lessons learned in implementing the MDGs’. Addis Ababa: ECA.Google Scholar
- Ehrhart, Christophe (2009) ‘The effects of inequality on growth: A survey of the theoretical and empirical literature’, ECINEQ WP-107.Google Scholar
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2015) FAO Statistics Division Database. Available from: http://faostat3.fao.org, accessed 10 November 2015.
- Field, Andy (2000) Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows: Advanced techniques for the beginner. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Gorsuch, Richard L. (1983) Factor analysis, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- ILO (International Labour Office) (2014) Trends Econometric Models. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
- IMF (International Monetary Fund) (2015) World Economic Outlook Database. Available from: http://www.imf.org/external/ns/cs.aspx?id=28, accessed 10 November 2015.
- Kelbore, Zerihun Getachew (2014) ‘Multidimensional structural transformation index: a new measure of development’, MPRA Paper No. 62920.Google Scholar
- Kibret, Addis, Hinsermu Bayu and Mulualem Merga (2014) ‘Prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Debre-markos Town, North West Ethiopia 2012’, Journal of Women’s Health Care 4(3): 1–6.Google Scholar
- Kuznets, Simon (1955) ‘Economic growth and income inequality’, American Economic Review (49): 1–28.Google Scholar
- LDC IV Monitor (2015) ‘Istanbul Programme of Action for the LDCs (2011–2020): monitoring deliverables, tracking progress - analytical perspectives’. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
- Mansell, Robin and Uta Wehn (1998) Knowledge societies: Information technology for sustainable development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- McQueston, Kate, Amanda Glassman and Rachel Silverman (2012) ‘Adolescent fertility in low and middle-income countries: effects and solutions’, Centre for Global Development Working Paper 292.Google Scholar
- Morris, Morris David (1979) Measuring the condition of the world’s poor: the physical quality of life index. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- Nurkse, Ragnar (1963). Les problèmes de la formation du capital dans les pays sous-développés. Traduction française, Paris: Editions Cujas.Google Scholar
- OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2016) International Development Statistics Online Database. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/development/stats/idsonline.htm, accessed 6 March 2016.
- Political Risk Services Group (2015) International Country Risk Guide Database. Available from: http://www.prsgroup.com/ICRG.aspx, accessed 10 November 2015.
- Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian and Francesco Trebbi (2002) ‘Institutions rule: the primacy of institutions over geography and integration in economic development’, NBER Working Paper No. 9305. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Timmer, C. Peter, Margaret McMillan Ousmane Badiane, Dani Rodrik, Hans Binswanger-Mkhize and Fleur Wouterse (2012) ‘Patterns of growth and structural transformation in Africa: Trends and lessons for future development strategies’, IFPRI Thematic Research Note 2.Google Scholar
- UN (United Nations) (1992) ‘Earth Summit, Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio’. Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21, accessed 2 December 2015.
- UN (2001) ‘Indicators of sustainable development: framework and methodologies’, Division of Sustainable Development Background paper No. 3. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- UN (2008) ‘Measuring sustainable development’, Report of the joint UNECE/OECD/Eurostat Working Group on Statistics for Sustainable Development. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- UN (2015a) ‘Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development’. Addis Ababa: UN.Google Scholar
- UN (2015b) ‘Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’. New York: UN.Google Scholar
- UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2015) ‘Building inclusive green economies in Africa: Experience and lessons learned 2010–2015’. Nairobi: UNEP.Google Scholar
- UNSD (United Nations Statistics Division) (2015) Millennium Development Goals Database. Available from: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.aspx, accessed 10 November 2015.
- World Bank (2015) World Development Indicators Database. Available from: http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators, accessed 10 November 2015.
- World Bank (2016) World Development Indicators Database. Available from: http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators, accessed 5 April 2016.