A perspective of water movement across an organic cutback interfacial layer

Abstract

In order to restrain vertical water movement into pavements, a cutback is applied between the base and asphalt concrete. This article provides an evaluation and analysis of vertical water movement through organic cutbacks. The guiding objectives were to ascertain pourability of cutbacks by establishing their rheology, to assess dependence of water movement rate across cutbacks on materials used and time, and to determine whether this water flow is through diffusion. Two Arabian asphalts were mixed with kerosene as diluent at varied ratios to form cutbacks that were applied on compacted model base combinations made of Crusher Run Rock and laterites. Water movement across the cutback was monitored over time using moisture probes. Results of data analyzed show that the cutbacks were pseudo-plastic which behaviour was shear rate specific. The main factors influencing water movement ranked in order of significance were base combination, asphalt type, cutback composition and duration of flow. The experimental water flow data at the cutback bottom do not fit onto Fick’s law implying that this flow through the cutback is not by diffusion. The study points to a possibility of interactions between water and the cutback internal components which is an area of further research. There is limited information on diffusion coefficients for water flow across petroleum products like cutbacks which should also arouse research interest.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    W. Zhang, Effect of tack coat application on interlayer shear strength of asphalt pavement: A state-of-the-art review based on application in the United States, Inter. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 10 (5) (2017) 434–445.

    Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    T. Nguyen, W. E. Byrd, D. Alsheh, W. McDonough, J. F. Seiler Jr., Interfacial water and adhesion loss of polymer coatings on a siliceous substrate, Mater. Res. Soci. Online Proc. Library 385 385 (1995) 57–63.

    Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    T. Nguyen, W. E. Byrd, D. Bentz, C. Lin, Insitu measurement of water at the organic coating / substrate interface, J. Coating Technol. 27 (4) (1996) 183–193.

    Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    U. Bagampadde, R. Karlsson, Laboratory studies on stripping at asphalt / substrate interfaces using FTIR-ATR, J. Mater. Sci. 42 (9) (2007) 3197–3206.

    Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    V. Baukh, Water transport in multilayer coatings Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2012 DOI: 10.6100/IR728782.

    Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    K. Liu, L. Deng, J. Zheng, Nanoscale study on water damage for different warm mix asphalt binders, Iner. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 9 (6) (2016) 405–413.

    Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 1975.

    Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    P. Cong, H. Hao, Y. Zhang, W. Luo, D. Yao, Investigation of diffusion of rejuvinator in aged asphalt, Inter. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 9 (4) (2016) 280–288.

    Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    K. N. Allahar, B. R. Hinderliter, D. E. Tallman, G. P. Bierwagen, Water transport in multilayer organic coatings, J. Electrochem. Soci. 155 (8) (2008) 201–208.

    Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard practice for reducing samples of aggregate to testing size. ASTM C702. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard practices ASTM D4220. for preserving and transporting soil samples. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for penetration of bituminous materials. ASTM D5. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for softening point of bitumen by ring and ball apparatus. ASTM D36. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester. ASTM D92. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Density of Semi-Solid Asphalt Binder (Pycnometer Method) density. ASTM D70. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Ductility of Bituminous Materials. ASTM D. 113. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation, bituminous materials, distillation, petroleum products. ASTM D95. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    European Standard, Determination of the kinematic viscosity of bituminous binders at 60 °C and 135 °C. EN 12595. EN, Czech Republic, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    British Standards, Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Classification tests. BS 1337. Part 2. BSI, UK, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    British Standards, Methods for the determination of the ten per cent fines value (TFV) of aggregates. BS 812. Part 111. BSI, UK, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    British Standards, Methods for determination of particle shape - Section 105.1 Flakiness index. BS 812. Part 105. BSI, UK, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    British Standards, Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Compaction-related tests. BS 1337. Part 4. BSI, UK, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for kinematic viscosity of asphalts, bitumen, asphalt binders, and distillation residues. ASTM D2170. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for viscosity and gel time of chemical grouts by rotational viscometer (Laboratory method), Brookfield viscometers. ASTM D4016 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    Ministry of Works, Housing and Communications, General Specifications for Road and Bridge Works, Uganda Printing and Publishing Corporation, Kampala, Uganda (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)). ASTM D698. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  27. [27]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for california bearing ratio (cbr) of laboratory-compacted soils. ASTM D1883. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    D. Whiteoak, J. Read, The shell asphalt handbook (5th ed,) London Thomas Telford Publishing. United Kingdom, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  29. [29]

    H. Z. Noor, I. Kamaruddin, M. Napiah, I. M. Tan, Rheological Properties of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Modified Asphalt, Inter. J. of Civ. Environ. Eng. 3 (2) (2011) 96–100.

    Google Scholar 

  30. [30]

    S. Senadheera, M. Vignarajah, Design and construction guide for surface treatments over base courses, Research Report 0-5169-P2, Texas Tech. University, Lubbock, Texas, USA, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    J. C. Petersen, Chemical composition of asphalt as related to asphalt durability. In T. F. Yen and G. V. Chilingar (Eds.) Asphaltenes and asphalts. Elsevier Science B.V., London, 2000, pp. 363–399.

    Google Scholar 

  32. [32]

    J. C. Petersen, A review of the fundamentals of asphalt oxidation. chemical, physicochemical, physical property and durability relationships, Transp. Res. Circular No. E-C140 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  33. [33]

    R. Siahaan, U. Siwarak, S. Boonchai, Characteristics of moisture measurement on base material of flexible pavement, Inter. J. Tech. Res. Appl. 2 (2) (2014) 5–10.

    Google Scholar 

  34. [34]

    R. Shrivastava, P. K. Agwarwal, R. Shrivastava, Drainage and flexible pavement performance, Inter. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 4 (4) (2012) 1308–1311.

    Google Scholar 

  35. [35]

    A. T. Papagiannakis, E. A. Masad, Pavement design and materials, Vol. 6, New Jersey. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  36. [36]

    O. Dietrich; Diffusion coefficients of water. (Diffusion coefficients of water, 2018), https.//www.dtrx.de/od/diff/. Accessed 18 November 2019).

    Google Scholar 

  37. [37]

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard test method for acid number of petroleum products by potentiometric titration acid number. ASTM D664. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA 2018.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

The authors do acknowledge the laboratory facilities at the Highways/Materials laboratory of Makerere University. The support of Mr. Fred Mukasa during the experimental phase was invaluable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Umaru Bagampadde.

Additional information

Peer review under responsibility of Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bagampadde, U., Joloba, J. & Mwesige, G. A perspective of water movement across an organic cutback interfacial layer. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42947-020-0021-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cutbacks
  • Rheology
  • Water
  • Fick’s law
  • Diffusion