# Water Network Integration of a Printing and Dyeing Plant

## Abstract

Water consumption in the printing and dyeing industry accounts for a large proportion of the total industrial water consumption. In the industry, there are large wastewater discharge with poor wastewater quality. Water system integration can effectively reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. The water using system in a printing and dyeing plant is complicated, since there are a large number of water using units, and the water control factors include concentration parameters (suspended solids, SS) and property parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and chromaticity), so that water network optimization is relatively difficult. In this paper, the water using system in a printing and dyeing plant in southeastern China is analyzed. The mathematical programming method is used to determine the optimal water network with the operational cost as the objective function. The optimized water network has reduced the operational cost from 1412.7 $/day to 1173$/day, freshwater consumption from 2115 to 1480 m3/day, and wastewater discharge from 1915.9 to 1284.4 m3/day.

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## Abbreviations

Rt :

set of regeneration units

s :

set of contaminants

p :

set of properties

Cost :

index for cost

F :

index for flow rate

c :

index for concentration

$${\varPsi}_{j,p}^{in,\min }$$ :

minimum property operator of property p of unit j

$${\varPsi}_{j,p}^{in,\max }$$ :

maximum property operator of property p of unit j

Cost W :

unit cost of freshwater W

Cost Rt1 :

unit cost of first stage regenerated water

Cost Rt2 :

unit cost of second stage regenerated water

Cost D :

unit cost of discharge

F lb, j :

lower bound of unit j’s flow rate

$${c}_{j,s}^{in,\max }$$ :

maximum concentration of contaminant s of unit j’s inlet

$${c}_{j,s}^{out,\max }$$ :

maximum concentration of contaminant s of unit j’s outlet

$${p}_{j,p}^{in,\min }$$ :

minimum property value of property p of unit j’s inlet

$${p}_{j,p}^{in,\max }$$ :

maximum property value of property p of unit j’s inlet

r Rt :

regenerated water production rate of regeneration unit Rt

Ψ W, p :

property operator of property p of industrial water

$${\varPsi}_{i,p}^{out}$$ :

outlet property operator of property p of unit i

$${\varPsi}_{j,p}^{in}$$ :

inlet property operator of property p of unit j

$${\varPsi}_{j,p}^{out}$$ :

outlet property operator of property p of unit j

$${\varPsi}_{Rt,p}^{out}$$ :

outlet property operator of property p of regeneration unit Rt

$${\varPsi}_{Rt1,p}^{in}$$ :

inlet property operator of property p of regeneration unit Rt1

$${\varPsi}_{Rt2,p}^{in}$$ :

inlet property operator of property p of regeneration unit Rt2

$${\varPsi}_{Rt2,p}^{out}$$ :

outlet property operator of property p of regeneration unit Rt2

F W, j :

inlet flow rate of industrial water of unit j, m3/day

F i, j :

flow rate of direct reused water from unit i to unit j, m3/day

F j, k :

flow rate of direct reused water from unit j to unit k, m3/day

F j, Rt2 :

flow rate of water from unit j to regeneration unit Rt2, m3/day

F Rt, j :

flow rate of regenerated water from regeneration unit Rt to unit j, m3/day

F Rt1, j :

flow rate of regenerated water from regeneration unit Rt1 to unit j, m3/day

F Rt2, j :

flow rate of regenerated water from regeneration unit Rt2 to unit j, m3/day

F Rt2, Rt1 :

flow rate of water from regeneration unit Rt2 to regeneration unit Rt1, m3/day

F Rt, D :

flow rate of discharge water of regeneration unit Rt, m3/day

F Rt1, D :

flow rate of discharge water of regeneration unit Rt1, m3/day

F Rt2, D :

flow rate of discharge water of regeneration unit Rt2, m3/day

F Loss, j :

flow rate of water loss of unit j, m3/day

F steam, j :

flow rate of steam used in unit j, m3/day

$${F}_j^{in}$$ :

total flow rate of inlet of unit j, m3/day

$${F}_j^{out}$$ :

total flow rate of outlet of unit j, m3/day

M j, s :

massload of contaminant s of unit j, t/h

c W, s :

concentration of contaminant s of industrial water, mg/L

c i, s :

concentration of contaminant s of unit i, mg/L

c Rt, s :

concentration of contaminant s of regeneration unit Rt, mg/L

$${c}_{j,s}^{in}$$ :

inlet concentration of contaminant s of unit j, mg/L

$${c}_{j,s}^{out}$$ :

outlet concentration of contaminant s of unit j, mg/L

$${c}_{Rt2,s}^{in}$$ :

inlet concentration of contaminant s of regeneration unit Rt2, mg/L

$${c}_{Rt2,s}^{out}$$ :

outlet concentration of contaminant s of regeneration unit Rt2, mg/L

$${p}_{j,p}^{in}$$ :

inlet property value of property p of unit j

$${p}_{Rt1,p}^{in}$$ :

inlet property value of property p of regeneration unit Rt1

$${p}_{Rt2,p}^{out}$$ :

inlet property value of property p of regeneration unit Rt2

in:

inlet

out:

outlet

min:

minimum

max:

maximum

i/j/k:

water using unit i/j/k

Rt/Rt1/Rt2:

regeneration unit Rt/Rt1/Rt2

W:

industrial water

D:

discharge

Loss:

water loss

steam:

steam

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## Funding

Financial support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0400509) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 21736008.

## Author information

Authors

### Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiao Feng.

## Ethics declarations

### Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.