Extracurricular Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior in Association with Dietary Habits and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents and the Role of Family Structure: a Literature Review

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Childhood obesity is considered a major problem in the modern world, associated with many health issues in youth. This review aimed the association between extracurricular sports participation, sedentary time/screen time, and “obesogenic” and “non-obesogenic” dietary habits among youth and to explore the role of family structure on the adoption of sedentary behaviors by children.

Recent Findings

Increased participation in extracurricular sports was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, containing more “non-obesogenic” food choices. Opposite results were indicated by sedentary activities. Increased time in watching TV, computer/electronic games, and other screen devices was positively associated with unhealthy dietary patterns.

Summary

Overall, extracurricular activities influence the quality of food choices, which may prevent or promote childhood obesity; thus, sport-related activities should be promoted through public health policies. The role of the family structure is contradictory.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.

    Vaamonde JG, Álvarez-Món MA. Obesity and overweight [Internet]. Medicine (Spain). 2020;13:767–76 (cited 2020, Oct 15) Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.

  2. 2.

    Lobstein T, Brinsden H. Atlas of Childhood Obesity. World Obes Fed [Internet]. 2019;1:212 (cited 2020, Oct 15) Available from: https://www.worldobesity.org/nlsegmentation/global-atlas-on-childhood-obesity.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ayer J, Charakida M, Deanfield JE, Celermajer DS. Lifetime risk: childhood obesity and cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(22):1371–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehv089.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kumar S, Kelly AS. Review of childhood obesity: from epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidities to clinical assessment and treatment. Mayo Clinic Pro. 2017;92:251–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.09.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Scharf RJ, DeBoer MD. Sugar-sweetened beverages and children’s health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2016;37(1):273–93. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021528.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Fidler Mis N, Braegger C, Bronsky J, Campoy C, Domellöf M, Embleton ND, et al. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents: a position paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;65(6):681–96. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001733.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, Beasley R, Murphy R, Mitchell EA. Fast food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(12). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005813.

  8. 8.

    Emmett PM, Jones LR. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Nutr Rev. 2015;73:175–206. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv054.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Karatzi K, Moschonis G, Choupi E, Manios Y, Skenderi KP, et al. Late-night overeating is associated with smaller breakfast, breakfast skipping, and obesity in children: The Healthy Growth Study. Nutrition. 2017;33:141–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.05.010.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Millar L, Rowland B, Nichols M, Swinburn B, Bennett C, Skouteris H, et al. Relationship between raised BMI and sugar-sweetened beverage and high fat food consumption among children. Obesity. 2014;22(5). https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20665.

  11. 11.

    • Wall CR, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, Murphy R, Braithwaite I, Beasley R, et al. Association between frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts and pulses and BMI: analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Nutrients. 2018;10(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030316This study from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood examined the association between dietary habits and body mass index across countries in adolescents and children. It was found among others an inverse association between body mass index and nuts in adolescents and fruits and vegetables in children.

  12. 12.

    Collings PJ, Kelly B, West J, Wright J. Associations of TV viewing duration, meals and snacks eaten when watching TV, and a TV in the bedroom with child adiposity. Obesity. 2018;26(10):1619–28. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22288.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ardeshirlarijani E, Namazi N, Jabbari M, Zeinali M, Gerami H, Jalili RB, et al. The link between breakfast skipping and overweigh/obesity in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2019;18:657–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00446-7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Auerbach BJ, Wolf FM, Hikida A, Vallila-Buchman P, Littman A, Thompson D, et al. Fruit juice and change in BMI: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017;139:e20162454. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2454.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Auerbach BJ, Dibey S, Vallila-Buchman P, Kratz M, Krieger J. Review of 100% fruit juice and chronic health conditions: implications for sugar-sweetened beverage policy. Adv Nutr. 2018;9:78–85. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmx006.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Crowe-White K, O’Neil CE, Parrott JS, Benson-Davies S, Droke E, Gutschall M, et al. Impact of 100% Fruit juice consumption on diet and weight status of children: an evidence-based review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(5):871–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1061475.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lu L, Xun P, Wan Y, He K, Cai W. Long-term association between dairy consumption and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(4):414–23. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.226.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Dougkas A, Barr S, Reddy S, Summerbell CD. A critical review of the role of milk and other dairy products in the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Nutr Res Rev. 2019;32:106–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422418000227.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hills AP, Andersen LB, Byrne NM. Physical activity and obesity in children. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:866–70. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090199.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Robinson TN, Banda JA, Hale L, Lu AS, Fleming-Milici F, Calvert SL, et al. Screen media exposure and obesity in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017;140(2):S97–101. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1758K.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2018;320(19):2020–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14854.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Badura P, Geckova AM, Sigmundova D, Van Dijk JP, Reijneveld SA. When children play, they feel better: organized activity participation and health in adolescents Energy balance-related behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2427-5.

  23. 23.

    World Health Organization. Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age [Internet]: World Health Organization; 2019. 36 p. (Cited 2020, Oct 20) Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/325147/WHO-NMH-PND-2019.4eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y%0Ahttp://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311664%0Ahttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/325147

  24. 24.

    Tremblay MS, Carson V, Chaput JP, Connor Gorber S, Dinh T, Duggan M, et al. Canadian 24-h movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6):S311–27. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0151.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Jongenelis MI, Scully M, Morley B, Pratt IS, Slevin T. Physical activity and screen-based recreation: prevalences and trends over time among adolescents and barriers to recommended engagement. Prev Med (Baltim). 2018;106:66–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.10.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Nelson TF, Stovitz SD, Thomas M, LaVoi NM, Bauer KW, Neumark-Sztainer D. Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2011;10:360–70. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0b013e318237bf74.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ford C, Ward D, White M. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6. Obes Rev. 2012;13:1139–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01028.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Pearson N, Biddle SJH. Sedentary behavior and dietary intake in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41:178–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.05.002.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Manz K, Mensink GBM, Finger JD, Haftenberger M, Brettschneider AK, Barbosa CL, et al. Associations between physical activity and food intake among children and adolescents: results of KIGGS wave 2. Nutrients. 2019;11(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051060.

  30. 30.

    Vella SA, Cliff DP, Okely AD, Scully ML, Morley BC. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:113. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-113.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Voráčová J, Badura P, Hamrik Z, Holubčíková J, Sigmund E. Unhealthy eating habits and participation in organized leisure-time activities in Czech adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 2018;177(10):1505–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-018-3206-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Morin P, Turcotte S, Perreault G. Relationship between eating behaviors and physical activity among primary and secondary school students: results of a cross-sectional study. J Sch Health. 2013;83(9):597–604. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12071.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Thivel D, Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT, Fogelholm M, Hu G, Maher C, et al. Associations between meeting combinations of 24-h movement recommendations and dietary patterns of children: a 12-country study. Prev Med (Baltim). 2019;118:159–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    • Tambalis KD, Panagiotakos DB, Psarra G, Sidossis LS. Association between fast food consumption and lifestyle characteristics in Greek children and adolescents; results from the EYZHN (National Action for Children’s Health) programme. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(18):3386–94. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980018002707This cross-sectional study was from the first that examined the prevalence of fast-food consumption and the association between fast food and lifestyle factors in children and adolescents. Data analysis showed that one-fifth of children consumed fast food every week and more than one time. The findings also suggested that among others, dietary habits, screen time, and physical activity were significantly associated with fast-food consumption.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Al-Hazzaa HM, Abahussain NA, Al-Sobayel HI, Qahwaji DM, Musaiger AO. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:140. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-140.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Olafsdottir S, Berg C, Eiben G, Lanfer A, Reisch L, Ahrens W, et al. Young children’s screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: results from a prospective European study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(2):223–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.234.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Christofaro DGD, De Andrade SM, Mesas AE, Fernandes RA, Farias Júnior JC. Higher screen time is associated with overweight, poor dietary habits and physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents, mainly among girls. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(4):498–506. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2015.1068868.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Borghese MM, Tremblay MS, Leduc G, Boyer C, Bélanger P, LeBlanc AG, et al. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(8):937–43. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0551.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Lowry R, Michael S, Demissie Z, Kann L, Galuska DA. Associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among US high school students. J Obes. 2015;2015:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/876524.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Santaliestra-Pasías AM, Mouratidou T, Verbestel V, Huybrechts I, Gottrand F, Le Donne C, et al. Food consumption and screen-based sedentary behaviors in European adolescents: The HELENA study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(11):1010–20. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.646.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Gebremariam MK, Bergh IH, Andersen LF, Ommundsen Y, Totland TH, Bjelland M, et al. Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Falbe J, Willett WC, Rosner B, Gortmaker SL, Sonneville KR, Field AE. Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1173–81. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.088500.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    • Delfino LD, Dos Santos Silva DA, Tebar WR, Zanuto EF, Codogno JS, Fernandes RA, et al. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018;58(3):318–25. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06980-8This study aimed the association on screen time by several devices and lack of physical activity and dietary habits. The main outcome was that the extensive utilization of screen devices was associated with high consumption of unhealthy dietary habits and physical inactivity in adolescents.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Avery A, Anderson C, McCullough F. Associations between children’s diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;13. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12428.

  45. 45.

    Pearson N, Ball K, Crawford D. Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-23.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Quarmby T, Dagkas S, Bridge M. Associations between children’s physical activities, sedentary behaviours and family structure: a sequential mixed methods approach. Health Educ Res. 2011;26(1):63–76. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyq071.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Ngantcha M, Janssen E, Godeau E, Ehlinger V, Le-Nezet O, Beck F, et al. Revisiting factors associated with screen time media use: a structural study among school-aged adolescents. J Phys Act Heal [Internet]. 2018;15(6):448–56. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2017-0272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    •• Langøy A, Smith OR, Wold B, Samdal O, Haug EM. Associations between family structure and young people’s physical activity and screen time behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):433. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6740-2This research was examined the associations between family structure and young people’s physical activity and screen time behaviors. The findings indicated that living with a single parent or “in reconstituted families” was adversely associated with physical activity, participation in sport and screen-based behaviors among adolescents.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Fakhouri TH, Hughes JP, Brody DJ, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Physical activity and screen-time viewing among elementary school–aged children in the United States from 2009 to 2010. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):223–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.122.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    McMillan R, McIsaac M, Janssen I. Family structure as a correlate of organized sport participation among youth. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0147403. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147403.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    •• Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 16 million participants. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal. 2020;4(1):23–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2This large population-based study was examined trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents, worldwide. The pooled analysis showed that over 80% of adolescents did not follow appropriate recommendations for daily physical activity. In addition, this study was from the first surveys that estimated levels of inadequate physical activity across 146 countries and it assessed those physical activity trends in country time, regionally and globally.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Madigan S, Racine N, Tough S. Prevalence of preschoolers meeting vs exceeding screen time guidelines. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174:93–5. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4495.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Straker L, Zabatiero J, Danby S, Thorpe K, Edwards S. Conflicting guidelines on young children’s screen time and use of digital technology create policy and practice dilemmas. J Pediatr. 2018;202:300–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.019.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Yates T, Wilmot EG, Khunti K, Biddle S, Gorely T, Davies MJ. Stand up for your health: is it time to rethink the physical activity paradigm? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93:292–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2011.03.023.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Strasburger VC, Mulligan DA, Altmann TR, Brown A, Christakis DA, Clarke-Pearson K, et al. Policy statement - children, adolescents, obesity, and the media. Pediatrics. 2011;128:201–8 https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2011/06/23/peds.2011-1066.full.pdf. Accessed 11th of October.

  56. 56.

    Matheson DM, Killen JD, Wang Y, Varady A, Robinson TN. Children’s food consumption during television viewing. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(6):1088–94. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1088.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Thivel D, Aucouturier J, Doucet É, Saunders TJ, Chaput JP. Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake? Appetite. 2013;60:58–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.022.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    King NA, Horner K, Hills AP, Byrne NM, Wood RE, Bryant E, et al. Exercise appetite and w eight m anagem ent: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:315–22. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.082495.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Xu H, Wen LM, Rissel C. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review. J Obes. 2015;2015:1–23. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/546925.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Lederer AM, King MH, Sovinski D, Kim N. The impact of family rules on children’s eating habits, sedentary behaviors, and weight status. Child Obes. 2015;11(4):421–9. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2014.0164.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Hughes SO, Papaioannou MA. Maternal predictors of child dietary behaviors and weight status. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018;7(4):268–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-018-0250-1.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Miller AL, Miller SE, Clark KM. Child, caregiver, family, and social-contextual factors to consider when implementing parent-focused child feeding interventions. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018;7(4):303–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-018-0255-9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors do not have any potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Maternal and Childhood Nutrition

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kanellopoulou, A., Diamantis, D.V., Notara, V. et al. Extracurricular Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior in Association with Dietary Habits and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents and the Role of Family Structure: a Literature Review. Curr Nutr Rep (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-021-00352-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Extracurricular sports
  • Sedentary
  • Screen time
  • Dietary habits
  • Childhood obesity
  • Family role