Efficiency of selected food ingredients on protein efficiency ratio, glycemic index and in vitro digestive properties Original Article First Online: 14 March 2018 Revised: 24 February 2018 Accepted: 05 March 2018 Abstract
The human body on exposure to high-altitude, undergoes many physiological challenges. The cardiopulmonary reserves are favoured against the digestive system. Hence, the efficiency of digestion is compromised to a great extent, which leads to anorexia, hypophagia, epigastralgia, dyspepsia, nausea, and peptic ulcers. The present study was focused on in vitro digestive influence of selected food ingredients viz. cardamom, carom, cumin, coriander, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, pepper, star anise, turmeric, papaya, orange, pineapple, liquorice, valerian, and tarragon on the activities of digestive enzymes of rat pancreas, duodenum, and small intestine. In-vitro antioxidant activities of the above food ingredients were also carried out with respect to their radical scavenging activity against DPPH
·, NO ·, and ferrous reducing antioxidant power. All the studied food ingredients showed a comparative range of free radical scavenging activity. Further, pineapple has shown enhanced enzymatic activity of pancreatic amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin among the tested samples with 432, 252, and 86%, respectively. However, all food ingredients showed inhibitory effect towards maltase activity, while the sucrose activity was enhanced in tarragon compared to control. Almost all the selected food ingredients have been observed to have low glycemic index and low protein efficiency ratio except pineapple. The results suggested that ample merit in the use of pineapple extract can be carried forward for the formulation of highly digestible foods for extreme environmental conditions. Keywords Digestive enzymes Protein efficiency ratio Glycemic index Antioxidant activity Spices Herbs Notes Acknowledgements
The authors thank Director, Defence Food Research Laboratory, DRDO, Mysore, India, for his support. The authors are also grateful to University Grant Commission, India for providing the fellowship grant.
Aglarova AM, Zilfikarov IN, Severtseva OV (2008) Biological characteristics and useful properties of tarragon (
L.). Pharm Chem J 42(2):81–86.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11094-008-0064-3 CrossRef Google Scholar
Anand AC, Sashindran VK, Mohan L (2006) Gastrointestinal problems at high altitude. Trop Gastroenterol 27(4):147–153
Askew EW (2002) Work at high altitude and oxidative stress: antioxidant nutrients. Toxicol 180(2):107–119.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00385-2 CrossRef Google Scholar
Brewer MS (2011) Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 10(4):221–247.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00156.x CrossRef Google Scholar
Chawla S, Saxena S (2014) Physiology of high-altitude acclimatization. Resonance 19(6):538–548.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12045-014-0057-3 CrossRef Google Scholar
Cheli F, Baldi A (2011) Nutrition-based health: cell-based bioassays for food antioxidant activity evaluation. J Food Sci.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02411 Google Scholar
Falguera V, Miarnau O, Pagan J, Ibarz A (2011) Inhibitory effect of melanins from
polyphenol oxidase and two different substrates on carboxypeptidases A and B activity. Eur Food Res Technol 233(6):1075–1079.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-011-1595-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Frankic T, Voljc M, Salobir J, Rezar V (2009) Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition. Acta Agric Slov 94(2):95–102.
Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS et al (1982) Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15 N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 126:131–138
CrossRef Google Scholar
Hartree EF (1972) Determination of protein: a modification of the Lowry method that gives a linear photometric response. Anal Biochem 48(2):422–427
CrossRef Google Scholar
Ketnawa S, Chaiwut P, Rawdkuen S (2012) Pineapple wastes: a potential source for bromelain extraction. Food Bioprod Process 90:385–391.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2011.12.006 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kumar GP, Anilakumar KR, Naveen S (2015) Phytochemicals having neuroprotective properties from dietary sources and medicinal herbs. Pharmacogn J 7(1):1–17.
https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2015.7.1 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mensa-Wilmot Y, Phillips RD, Hargrove JL (2001) Protein quality evaluation of cowpea-based extrusion cooked cereal/legume weaning mixtures. Nutr Res 21(6):849–857.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00302-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Monro JA, Shaw M (2008) Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications. Am J Clin Nutr 87(1):237S–243S.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.1.237S CrossRef Google Scholar
Nam SH, Walsh MK, Kim SH, Yang KY (2016) Identification and functional characterization of cysteine protease from nine pear cultivars (
). Int J Food Prop 19(7):1631–1644.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2015.1107576 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pavan R, Jain S, Kumar A (2012) Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: a review. Biotechnol Res Int.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/976203 Google Scholar
Platel K, Srinivasan K (1996) Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats. Int J Food Sci Nutr 47(1):55–59.
https://doi.org/10.3109/09637489609028561 CrossRef Google Scholar
Platel K, Srinivasan K (2000a) Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Mol Nutr Food Res (Nahrung) 44(1):42–46.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(20000101)44:1<42:AID-FOOD42>3.0.CO;2-D Google Scholar
Platel K, Srinivasan K (2000b) Stimulatory influence of select spices on bile secretion in rats. Nut Res 20:1493–1503.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(00)80030-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Platel K, Srinivasan K (2001) A study of the digestive stimulant action of select spices in experimental rats. J Food Sci Technol 38(4):358–361
Prakash UN, Srinivasan K (2012) Fat digestion and absorption in spice-pretreated rats. J Sci Food Agric 92(3):503–510.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4597 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ramakrishna RR, Platel K, Srinivasan K (2003) In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Mol Nutr Food Res 47(6):408–412.
https://doi.org/10.1002/food.200390091 Google Scholar
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Riceevans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical decolorization assay. Free Radic Bio Med 26:1231–1237
CrossRef Google Scholar
Salzman AL (1995) Nitric oxide in the gut. New Horiz 3(1):33–45
Shan B, Cai YZ, Brooks JD, Corke H (2007) The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. Int J Food Microbiol 117(1):112–119.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.03.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK (2013) Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana. J Diabetes Complic 27(2):103–113.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.10.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shobana S, Naidu K (2000) Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fat Acids 62(2):107–110.
https://doi.org/10.1054/plef.1999.0128 CrossRef Google Scholar
Srinivasan K (2005) Spices as influencers of body metabolism: an overview of three decades of research. Food Res Int 38(1):77–86.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2004.09.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Takruri HR, Dameh MA (1998) Study of the nutritional value of black cumin seeds (
L). J Sci Food Agric 76(3):404–410.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76:3<404:AID-JSFA964>3.0.CO;2-L CrossRef Google Scholar
Valussi M (2012) Functional foods with digestion-enhancing properties. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63(1):82–89.
https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.627841 CrossRef Google Scholar
Weder JK, Haubner K (1991) Inhibitors of human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin in fenugreek (
L.) seeds. Z Lebensm-Untersuch Forsch 193(3):242–246.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01199974 CrossRef Google Scholar
Wink OA, Kasprzak KS, Maragose M (1991) DNA deaminating ability and genotoxicity of nitric oxide and its progenitors. Science 254:1001–1003
CrossRef Google Scholar
Wu TY, Ding SQ, Liu JL, Jia JH, Dai RC, Zhu DC, Sun YF (2007) High-altitude gastrointestinal bleeding: an observation in Qinghai-Tibetan railroad construction workers on Mountain Tanggula. World J Gastroenterol 13(5):774.
https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i5.774 CrossRef Google Scholar
Xu BJ, Chang SKC (2007) A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. J Food Sci 72(2):160–161.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00260.x Google Scholar Copyright information
© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018