Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1966–1971 | Cite as

Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer’s spent yeast on bread characteristics

  • Z. E. Martins
  • O. Pinho
  • I. M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira
Short Communication

Abstract

The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers’ spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

Keywords

Bread β-Glucans Proteins Proteolytic enzymes Brewer’s spent yeast 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors wish to thank FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia the Grant FRH/BD/87461/2012. This work received financial support from the European Union (FEDER Funds POCI/01/0145/FEDER/007265) and National Funds (FCT/MEC, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and Ministério da Educação e Ciência) under the Partnership Agreement PT2020 UID/QUI/50006/2013.

References

  1. AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Buera M, Retriella C, Lozano R (1985) Definition of colour in the nonenzymatic browning process. Farbe 33:316–326Google Scholar
  3. Caballero PA, Gómez M, Rosell CM (2007) Bread quality and dough rheology of enzyme-supplemented wheat flour. Eur Food Res Technol 224:525–534.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0311-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. EFSA (2011) Scientific opinion on the safety of ‘yeast beta-glucans’ as a novel food ingredient. EFSA J 9:2137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO/WHO (1990) Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation technical report. FAO/WHO and United Nations vol 724, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  6. Ferreira IMPLVO, Pinho O, Vieira E, Tavarela JG (2010) Brewer’s Saccharomyces yeast biomass: characteristics and potential applications. Trends Food Sci Technol 21:77–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallagher E, Gormley TR, Arendt EK (2003) Crust and crumb characteristics of gluten free breads. J Food Eng 56:153–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00244-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lazaridou A, Biliaderis CG (2007) Molecular aspects of cereal β-glucan functionality: physical properties, technological applications and physiological effects. J Cereal Sci 46:101–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mäkinen OE, Arendt EK (2012) Oat malt as a baking ingredient—a comparative study of the impact of oat, barley and wheat malts on bread and dough properties. J Cereal Sci 56:747–753.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Martins ZE, Erben M, Gallardo AE, Silva R, Barbosa I, Pinho O, Ferreira IMPLVO (2015) Effect of spent yeast fortification on physical parameters, volatiles and sensorial characteristics of home-made bread. Int J Food Sci Technol 50:1855–1863.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12818 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Otsu N (1979) A threshold selection method from gray-level histogram. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 9:62–66.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmc.1979.4310076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Petravić-Tominac V, Zechner-Krpan V, Berković K, Galović P, Herceg Z, Srečec S, Śpoljarić I (2011) Rheological properties, water-holding and oil-binding capacities of particulate ß-glucans isolated from spent brewer’s yeast by three different procedures. Food Sci Biotechnol 49:56–64Google Scholar
  13. Polaki A, Xasapis P, Fasseas C, Yanniotis S, Mandala I (2010) Fiber and hydrocolloid content affect the microstructural and sensory characteristics of fresh and frozen stored bread. J Food Eng 97:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.04.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Poutanen K (1997) Enzymes: an important tool in the improvement of the quality of cereal foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 8:300–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01063-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prosky L, Asp NG, Furda I, DeVries JW, Schweizer TF, Harland BF (1985) Determination of total dietary fibre in foods and food products: collaborative study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 68:677Google Scholar
  16. Prosky L, Asp NG, Schweizer TF, DeVries JW, Furda I (1988) Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fibre in foods and food products. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 71:1017Google Scholar
  17. Ramírez-Jiménez A, Guerra-Hernández E, García-Villanova B (2000) Browning indicators in bread. J Agric Food Chem 48:4176–4181.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9907687 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Russ JC (2011) The image processing handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  19. Skendi A, Biliaderis CG, Papageorgiou M, Izydorczyk MS (2010) Effects of two barley β-glucan isolates on wheat flour dough and bread properties. Food Chem 119:1159–1167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Thammakiti S, Suphantharika M, Phaesuwan T, Verduyn C (2004) Preparation of spent brewer’s yeast β-glucans for potential applications in the food industry. Int J Food Sci Technol 39:21–29.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00742.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vieira E, Brandão T, Ferreira IMPLVO (2013) Evaluation of brewer’s spent yeast to produce flavor enhancer nucleotides: influence of serial repitching. J Agric Food Chem 61:8724–8729.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf4021619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vieira EF, Carvalho J, Pinto E, Cunha S, Almeida AA, Ferreira IMPLVO (2016) Nutritive value, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds profile of brewer’s spent yeast extract. J Food Compost Anal 52:44–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2016.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Volman JJ, Ramakers JD, Plat J (2008) Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans. Physiol Behav 94:276–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang L, Miller RA, Hoseney RC (1998) Effects of (1 → 3)(1 → 4)-β-d-glucans of wheat flour on breadmaking. Cereal Chem 75:629–633.  https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.5.629 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zayas IY (1993) Digital image texture analysis for bread crumb grain evaluation. Cereal Food World 38:760–766Google Scholar
  26. Zhou J, Liu J, Tang X (2017) Effects of whey and soy protein addition on bread rheological property of wheat flour. J Texture Stud 49:38–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Bromatologia e Hidrologia, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de FarmáciaUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations