The hydrocracking of used cooking oil into biofuel over mesoporous silica was systematically studied. This research aims to induce the silica pores using NaHCO3 and employ the heteropore silica for the hydrocracking process of used cooking oil into biofuel. The mesoporous silica material was synthesized with various ratios of NaHCO3 and TEOS, and calcined at various temperatures. The highest acidity of mesoporous silica was obtained under the optimized conditions (NaHCO3/TEOS ratio of 1:2 and calcination temperature of 400 °C). The modification of silica led to decreasing the crystallinity, particle size, and percentage of Si and O, while increasing the pore size of the catalyst. The hydrocracking of used cooking oil over mesoporous silica with catalyst/feed ratio of 1:100 under H2 gas rate of 20 mL/min for two hours successfully produced the highest proportion of liquid yield.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Srivastava A, Prasad R (2000) Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 4:111–133
Knothe G (2010) Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison. Prog Energ Combust 36:364–373
Huber GW, Iborra S, Corma A (2006) Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem Rev 106:4044–4098
Ping EW, Wallace R, Pierson J, Fuller TF, Jones CW (2010) Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on ultra-porous silica mesocellular foam for the catalytic decarboxylation of stearic acid. Micropor Mesopor Mat 132:174–180
Kurnia JK, Jangam SV, Akhtar S, Sasmito AP, Mujumdar AS (2016) Advance in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing waste: a review. Biofuel Res J 9:332–346
Bezergianni S, Dimitriadis A, Kalogianni A, Knudsen KG (2011) Toward Hidrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production, effect of pressure, H2/oil ratio and liquid hourly space velocity. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3874–3879
Upare DP, Park S, Kim MS, Jeon YP, Kim J, Lee D, Lee J, Chang H, Choi S, Choi W, Park YK, Lee CW (2017) Selective hydrocracking of pyrolysis fuel oil into benzene, toluene and xylene over CoMo/beta zeolite catalyst. J Ind Eng Chem 46:356–363
Wijaya K, Baobalaguana G, Trisunaryanti W, Syoufian A (2013) Hydrocracking of palm oil into biogasoline catalyst by Cr/natural zeolite. Asian J Chem 25:8981–8986
Pala N, Bhaumikb A (2015) Mesoporous material: a versatile support in heterogeneous catalysis for the liquid phase catalytic transformations. RSC Adv 31:1–86
Christopher MA, Parlett WK, Adam FL (2012) Hierarchical porous materials: catalytic applications. Chem Soc Rev 42:3876–3893
Kamitori Y, Hojo M, Masuda R, Izumi T, Tsukamoto S (1984) Silica gel as an effective catalyst for the alkylation of phenols and some heterocyclic aromatic compounds. J Org Chem 49:4161–4165
Williams S, Neumann A, Bremer I, Su Y, Drager G, Kasper C, Behrens P (2014) Nanoporous silica nanoparticles as biomaterials: evaluation of different strategies for the functionalization with polysialic acid by step-by-step cytocompatibility testing. J Mater Sci Mater Med 26:1–16
Coltrain BK, Melpolder SM, Salva JM (1992) Ultrastructure processing of advanced materials. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York
Schmidt H (1998) Chemistry of material preparation by the sol-gel process. J Non-Cryst Solids 100:51–64
Huo Q, Margolese DI, Stucky GD (1996) Stucky surfactant control of phases in the synthesis of Mesoporous silica-based materials. Chem Mater 8:1147–1160
Lai CY (2013) Mesoporous silica Nanomaterials applications in catalysis. J Thermodyn Catal 5:1–3
Munir D, Usman MR (2016) Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous hydrocracking catalysts, IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 146:1–7
Taguchi A, Schuth F (2005) Ordered mesoporous materials in catalysis. Micropor Mesopor Mat 77:1–45
Vartuli JC, Schmitt KD, Kresge CT, Roth WJ, Leonowicz ME, McCullen SB, Hellring SD, Beck JS, Schlenker JL, Olson DH, Sheppard EW (1994) Development of a Formation Mechanism for M41S Materials, Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials: State of the Art1994, Proceedings of the 10th International Zeolite Conference. GarmischPartenkirchen, Germany
Beck JS, Vartuli JC, Roth WJ, Leonowicz ME, Kresge CT, Schmitt KD, Chu CTW, Olson DH, Sheppard EW, McCullen SB (1992) A new family of mesoporous molecular sieves prepared with liquid crystal templates. J Am Chem Soc 114:10834–10843
Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RAW, Moscou L, Pierotti RA, Rouquerol J, Sienieniewska T (1985) Reporting Physisorption data for gas/solid system with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity. Pure Appl Chem 4:603–619
Gorlich E (1982) The structure of SiO2 - current views. Ceram Int 8:8–16
Trisunaryanti W, Triyono PC, Larasati S, Santoso NR, Fatmawati DA (2020) Synthesis and characterization of Ni-NH2/Mesoporous silica catalyst from Lapindo mud for hydrocracking of waste cooking oil into biofuel. Rasayan J Chem 13:1386–1393
Nuryanto R, Trisunaryanti W, Triyono (2020) Variation of gelatin amount as template for Mesoporous silica-alumina synthesis based on Lapindo mud. Asian J Chem 32:1576–1580
Hauli L, Wijaya K, Armunanto R (2018) Preparation and characterization of sulfated zirconia from a commercial zirconia Nanopowder. Orient J Chem 34:1559–1564
Hauli L, Wijaya K, Syoufian A (2020) Fuel production from LDPE-based plastic waste over chromium supported on sulfated zirconia. Indones J Chem 20:422–429
Rameli N, Jumbri K, Wahab RA, Ramli A, Huyop F (2018) Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles using ionic liquids as a template. J Phys: Conf Ser 1123:1–7
Garand E, Wende T, Goebbert DJ, Bergmann R, Meijer G, Neumark DM, Asmis KR (2010) Infrared spectroscopy of hydrated bicarbonate anion clusters: HCO3−(H2O)1-10. J Am Chem Soc 132:849–856
Potapov VV, Zhuravlev LT (2005) Temperature dependence of the concentration of Silanol groups in silica precipitated from a hydrothermal solution. Glas Phys Chem 31:661–670
Hu Y, Wang J, Zhi Z, Jiang T, Wang S (2011) Facile synthesis of 3D cubic mesoporous silica microspheres with a controllable pore size and their application for improved delivery of a water-insoluble drug. J Colloid Interface Sci 363:410–417
Chen Y, Han J, Zhang H (2007) Structure and acid–base properties of surface-modified mesoporous silica. Appl Surf Sci 253:9400–9406
Utami M, Wijaya K, Trisunaryanti W (2017) Effect of sulfuric acid treatment and calcination on commercial zirconia Nanopowder. Key Eng Mater 757:131–137
Sulpizi M, Gaigeot MP, Sprik M (2012) The silica-water Interface: how the Silanols determine the surface acidity and modulate the water properties. J Chem Theory Comput 13:1037–1047
Wu W, Ye C, Xiao H, Sun X, Qu W, Li X, Chen M, Li J (2016) Hierarchical mesoporous silica nanoparticles for tailorable drug release. Int J Pharm 511:65–72
Purnawira B, Purwaningsih H, Ervianto Y, Pratiwi VM, Susanti D, Rochiem R, Purniawan A (2019) Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNp) MCM 41 from natural waste rice husk. IOP Conf Ser.: Mater Sci Eng 541:1–6
Utami M, Trisunaryanti W, Shida K, Tsushida M, Kawakita H, Ohto K, Wijaya K, Tominaga M (2019) Hydrothermal preparation of a platinum-loaded Sulphated Nanozirconia catalyst for the effective conversion of waste low density polyethylene into gasoline-range hydrocarbons. RSC Adv 9:41392–41401
Rodrigues MGF, Magnoux P, Guisnet M, Choudhary VR (1997) The Effect of hydrogen on coke removal from Ga/HZMS5 catalysts, Braz. J Chem Eng. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66321997000300008
Schuchardt U, Sercheli R, Varga RM (1998) Transesterification of vegetable oils: a review. J Braz Chem Soc 9:199–210
Utami M, Trisunaryanti W, Wijaya K (2018) Pt-promoted sulfated zirconia as catalyst for hydrocracking of LDPE plastic waste into liquid fuels. Mater Chem Phys 213:548–555
The authors are grateful to the Indonesian Collaboration Research Program-10 (PTNBH), Brawijaya University (UB), and Sebelas Maret University (UNS) of the Fiscal Year 2019 with contract number 2051/UN1.P.III /DIT-LIT/ LT/2019 for the financial assistance in this research.
Availability of Data and Material (Data Transparency)
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Indonesian Collaboration Research Program-10 (PTNBH) with contract number 2051/UN1.P.III /DIT-LIT/ LT/2019.
Conflicts of Interest/Competing Interests
• The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
• The authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest in relation to the study in this paper.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals
This chapter does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Consent to Participate
Consent for Publication
Code Availability (Software Application or Custom Code)
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Wijaya, K., Saputri, W.D., Aziz, I.T.A. et al. Mesoporous Silica Preparation Using Sodium Bicarbonate as Template and Application of the Silica for Hydrocracking of Used Cooking Oil into Biofuel. Silicon (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-021-00946-3
- Mesoporous silica
- Used cooking oil