Mesoporous Silica Preparation Using Sodium Bicarbonate as Template and Application of the Silica for Hydrocracking of Used Cooking Oil into Biofuel


The hydrocracking of used cooking oil into biofuel over mesoporous silica was systematically studied. This research aims to induce the silica pores using NaHCO3 and employ the heteropore silica for the hydrocracking process of used cooking oil into biofuel. The mesoporous silica material was synthesized with various ratios of NaHCO3 and TEOS, and calcined at various temperatures. The highest acidity of mesoporous silica was obtained under the optimized conditions (NaHCO3/TEOS ratio of 1:2 and calcination temperature of 400 °C). The modification of silica led to decreasing the crystallinity, particle size, and percentage of Si and O, while increasing the pore size of the catalyst. The hydrocracking of used cooking oil over mesoporous silica with catalyst/feed ratio of 1:100 under H2 gas rate of 20 mL/min for two hours successfully produced the highest proportion of liquid yield.

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The authors are grateful to the Indonesian Collaboration Research Program-10 (PTNBH), Brawijaya University (UB), and Sebelas Maret University (UNS) of the Fiscal Year 2019 with contract number 2051/UN1.P.III /DIT-LIT/ LT/2019 for the financial assistance in this research.

Availability of Data and Material (Data Transparency)

The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Indonesian Collaboration Research Program-10 (PTNBH) with contract number 2051/UN1.P.III /DIT-LIT/ LT/2019.

Author information




Conceptualization: Karna Wijaya.

Methodology: Wangsa.

Formal analysis and investigation: Ilyas Taufik Abdul Aziz.

Writing - original draft preparation: Wahyu Dita Saputri.

Writing - review and editing: Wahyu Dita Saputri.

Funding acquisition: Karna Wijaya, Eddy Heraldy, Lukman Hakim.

Resources: Karna Wijaya, Maisari Utami.

Supervision: Karna Wijaya, Eddy Heraldy, Lukman Hakim, Ahmad Suseno.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karna Wijaya.

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Wijaya, K., Saputri, W.D., Aziz, I.T.A. et al. Mesoporous Silica Preparation Using Sodium Bicarbonate as Template and Application of the Silica for Hydrocracking of Used Cooking Oil into Biofuel. Silicon (2021).

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  • Mesoporous silica
  • Hydrocracking
  • Used cooking oil
  • Biofuel